Tag Archives: climate change

123–132 M. Giolo , A. Dalla Montà, E. Barolo, F. Ferrari, R. Masin and S. Macolino
High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars
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High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars

M. Giolo¹ ³, A. Dalla Montà¹, E. Barolo¹, F. Ferrari², R. Masin³ and S. Macolino³

¹Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Ca' Nova Zampieri 37, IT 37057 S.G. Lupatoto (VR), Italy
²Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Emilia km 307 19, IT 26838 Tavazzano (Lodi), Italy
³Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment, Padova University, Viale dell’Università 16, IT 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
*Correspondence: roberta.masin@unipd.it

Abstract:

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a perennial cool-season grass commonly used for sport and ornamental turfgrasses in transition zones. It is a rather difficult species to establish due to slow germination and the relatively moderate growth rate of seedlings. Early autumn is considered the best time for sowing Kentucky bluegrass in temperate regions. Spring sowing is not recommended as low soil moisture and high temperatures can have a negative impact on germination. However, unavoidable circumstances often force turfgrasses to be sown in spring with high probability of failure. The risk of failure may increase in the near future as a consequence of climate change, so more knowledge is required on the ability of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars to germinate at high temperatures. A laboratory study evaluated the germination response of fourteen cultivars selected among those most used in northern Italy. They were compared in a conditioning chamber under five regimes of alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 23/33 °C, 26/36 °C, 29/39 °C, 32/42 °C). Germination was recorded weekly starting from sowing. The germination patterns were similar up to 26/36 °C. At 29/39 °C only five cultivars had a germination of over 50%. At the highest temperature regime none of the cultivars had more than 3% germination. It is concluded that only when very extreme high temperatures occur, growers need to pay attention to the choice of cultivars to avoid problems during the germination-emergence phase, but based on the climate change scenario this is likely to happen with greater frequency in the future.

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385-396 G. Várallyay
The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management
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The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management

G. Várallyay

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC) of theHungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; e-mail: g.varallyay@rissac.hu

Abstract:

Human activities result in changes in the global environment, sometimes with severe consequences for our future life. Changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere – partly due to CO2 and ‘greenhouse gases’ emission – may lead to a rise in temperature with high spatial and temporal variability, to alterations in the global circulation processes, and to a serious rearrangement of atmospheric precipitation, increasing aridity in some locations. These modifications are reflected sensitively by ecosystems (natural vegetation and land use pattern) and by considerable alterations in soil formation and degradation processes, in soil properties and soil functions.The potential impacts of the forecasted climate change reservoirs are briefly summarizedin the present paper with special regard to soil water management, soil moisture regime and their influences on the main soil degradation processes. Based on this analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the possibilities of sustainable soil moisture and the required measures of rational control: increasing water use efficiency; reducing evaporation, surface runoff, seepage and filtration losses; increasing water storage capacity and available moisture range of soils.

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49–62 M. Kruus
The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

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The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

M. Kruus

Institute of Plant Protection, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: gothica@online.ee

Abstract:

At present it has been firmly established that climate can be influenced by both natural forces and human activities. It is generally accepted that an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere results in the warming of the Earth’s surface. Recent changes in the European fauna of Lepidoptera have been considered as a northward shift of entire distribution areas, caused by global warming. Northern territories are invaded by temperate species, and  the process seemingly has a cyclic nature. An invasion of a new species is often followed by a rapid growth of its population and followed by its penetration into the neighbouring areas.

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