Tag Archives: combustion engine

547-555 M. Pexa, J. Čedík and R. Pražan
Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels
Abstract |

Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels

M. Pexa¹*, J. Čedík¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Production of solid particles significantly increases the dangerousness of combustion engines. The excellent sorbtion characteristics of the solid particles increases their harmful effects and makes them very dangerous component of emissions which causes health problems. Currently there are many design solutions which aim to reduce smoke of combustion engines. One of the most significant solutions suggests increasing the injection pressures up to the limit of 250 MPa and filtering the exhaust gases. The paper compares different fuels and biofuels, whether used alone or in mixtures, and their effect on smoke of supercharged CI engine. The comparison uses the 8-point NRSC (Non-Road Steady Cycle) test during which the following fuels were used: diesel, rapeseed methyl ester, rapeseed oil, Jatropha curcas oil, biobutanol, hydrotreated oil and other blended fuels. The measurement and comparison results show that using biofuels can significantly reduce smoke of combustion engine by up to tens of percent in comparison to diesel.

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540–546 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, F. Kumhála and R. Pražan
Estimation of mulching energy intensity
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Estimation of mulching energy intensity

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík,¹*, F. Kumhála² and R. Pražan³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and
Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural
Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01
Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Mulching is one of the energy-intensive activities in agriculture. The energy is gained from the consumed fuel. Besides the consumed fuel the combustion engine produces harmful and unharmful exhaust gases. The general trend is to reduce the production of harmful constituents of emissions as well as carbone dioxide. This can be achieved by various construction modifications or additional modifications of exhaust gases. It is possible to estimate the energy intensity in advance by several different ways. The paper presents the estimation based on measured complete characteristics of emissions production and the fuel consumption of used combustion engine and on the measured on-board data. The results show that the estimation of fuel consumption and thus also production of carbon dioxide can be relatively successful. The estimation differs quite significantly for other emissions components. During different transition modes of the combustion engine there is a change of emissions production which is hard to describe. The solution could lie in use of other parameters determining the operation mode of the engine in addition to the commonly used speed and torque of the combustion engine.

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167–173 B. Peterka, M. Pexa, J. Čedík and Z. Aleš
The influence of biobutanol on performance parameters of mobile generator
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The influence of biobutanol on performance parameters of mobile generator

B. Peterka, M. Pexa, J. Čedík* and Z. Aleš

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for
Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6,
Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The expansion of biofuel also affects the area of using small internal combustion engines, which are widely used in municipal equipment such as minitractors,  chainsaws, mowers and brush cutters. These small engines have their specific  operation conditions, especially given by high operating speeds and high loads. Current legislation for fuel BA 95 prescribes the addition of ethanol. The percentage is however very small nearly not affecting the operation of combustion engines. The paper is focused on biobutanol since it is considered as more advanced type of alcohol based fuel than bioethanol. The measurement is focused on a small combustion engine of portable generator with maximum power of 2.5 kW. There is monitored influence of biobutanol on their performance parameters. As the mixing ratios are in the range of 100% fuel BA 95 (without ethanol) to 100% biobutanol.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
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Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
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Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (851 kB)

Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (772 kB)

Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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74-78 R. Ilves, V. Mikita, Ü. Traat and A. Gregor
Common Rail Diesel Feed System Diagnosing Technology
Abstract |
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Common Rail Diesel Feed System Diagnosing Technology

R. Ilves¹, V. Mikita¹, Ü. Traat¹ and A. Gregor

¹ Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: risto.ilves@emu.ee
² Department of Thermal Engineering in Tallinn University of Technology
Tallinn University of Technology, 116 Kopli Str., EE11712 Tallinn, Estonia;

Abstract:

For testing common rail diesel feed systems, the company responsible for the production has issued test plans that include cycle values and repair technology. This particular article provides the reader with an overview of the common rail diesel feed systems’ changes in cycle value due to control parameters and diagnosing technology that does not use test plans.

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