Tag Archives: controlled traffic farming

xxx M. Barát, V. Rataj, Š. Týr, M. Macák and J. Galambošová
Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence
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Effect of controlled traffic farming on weed occurrence

M. Barát¹*, V. Rataj¹, Š. Týr², M. Macák¹ and J. Galambošová¹

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Tr. Andreja Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: xbarat@is.uniag.sk

Abstract:

Soil compaction caused by field traffic is one of the most important yield limiting factors. Moreover, published results report that soil over-compaction inhibits the uptake of plant nutrients and decreases their ability to compete with weeds. Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is technology which prevents excessive soil compaction and minimizes compacted area to the least possible area of permanent traffic lines. A long-term experiment was established at University farm in Kolinany (Slovakia) in 2010 with 6 m OutTrack CTF system. Random Traffic Farming (RTF) is simulated by 1 annual machinery pass crossing the permanent traffic lines. Aim of presented study was to assess the effect of CTF on weed infection pressure. To achieve this, weed occurrence at different traffic treatments was determined. Emerged weeds per square meter were counted, identified and recorded at 14 monitoring points. Results showed that higher weed infection was found at the area with one machinery pass compared to the non-compacted area. Following weeds were identified: Bromus secalinus L., Stellaria media (L.) VILL., Veronica persica POIR. in LAMK., Poa annua L., Polygonum aviculare L., Convolvulus arvensis L. Occurrence of these weeds could be used as soil compaction indicator. Based on these results it can be concluded, that CTF technology has potential to decrease weed infestation in comparison to RTF system due to ration of non-compacted to compacted area. Moreover, with exact localization of weeds in traffic lines together with exact identification of weed species, it is possible to target the application of herbicides.

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63-72 D. Gutu, J. Hůla, P. Kovaříček and P. Novák,
The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff
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The influence of a system with permanent traffic lanes on physical properties of soil, soil tillage quality and surface water runoff

D. Gutu¹, J. Hůla¹, P. Kovaříček² and P. Novák¹,*

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering ,p.r.i. , Drnovska 507, 161 01 Prague 6 – Ruzyne, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The system with permanent driving tracks at the module of machines working width 6 metres, practised in a 10-ha field, allowed to consistently separate the area designed for restricted traffic lanes of farm machines from the production area of the field. The aim of the study is to assess the selected indicators of the condition of topsoil, which is characterized by soil porosity, indicators of soil workability, soil ability to absorb water from rainfall and soil loss by wash after four years of controlled traffic system application in a field trial. Indicators of soil condition were evaluated in four variants with different wheel impacts of tractors and other machines on the soil. A field trial was established in the spring 2010; the measured values in the study are from 2013 and 2014. The results show an advantage, which represents concentration of passages into permanent tracks aimed at protection of most part of a plot from soil compaction. Hardness of clods after tillage in autumn 2013 was five times higher in places with random traffic (356.7 kPa) than outside traffic lanes in the system of controlled traffic (70 kPa). An important result is that the system with permanent traffic lanes made it possible to increase the soil capacity of taking up water under intensive rainfall – in comparison to a part of the land with random passes. The results of measurements with a rainfall simulator in April 2014 showed that cumulative surface runoff after sixty minutes was 7.6 l m-2 on the land with random passes while 3.9 l m-2 outside the traffic lanes (32% of the area of the field). The soil loss by wash during water surface runoff was also lower with controlled traffic compared to the variant with random passes. Therefore it is to assume that suitable application of the controlled traffic farming system may be a contribution to soil protection from water erosion.

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103-110 T. Šima,, L. Nozdrovický, M. Dubeňová, K. Krištof and J. Krupička
Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow
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Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow

T. Šima¹,*, L. Nozdrovický², M. Dubeňová³, K. Krištof⁴ and J. Krupička⁵

¹,²,⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering,
Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra,
Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic
⁵Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Agriculture, especially soil tillage and the use of fertilisers, significantly contributes to N2O emissions from soil into the atmosphere. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the amount of nitrous oxide emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere depending on crop residues in conditions of a controlled traffic farming (CTF) system. Monitoring points were selected in parts of a field with/ without crop residues and in trafficked and non-trafficked areas. There were realised three variants of the experiment: before soil tillage, right after soil tillage and seven days after soil tillage. Soil tillage was carried out by a LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow with a JOHN DEERE 8230 tractor on the loamy soil after the harvest of winter wheat. The used laboratory method of measuring N2O emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere consists of collecting soil samples from the field and their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. There were used INNOVA devices which consist of a photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 based on the infrared photo-acoustic detection method, a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309 used for gas sampling transport to the gas analyser INNOVA 1412, and a notebook with operation software used for the control and setup of the analysis. There was discovered an effect of crop residues and soil compaction on the nitrous oxide flux.

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