Tag Archives: conventional tillage

303-310 M.R. Khaledian, , J.C. Mailhol and P. Ruelle
Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation
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Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation

M.R. Khaledian¹, ²⋅*, J.C. Mailhol¹ and P. Ruelle¹

¹UMR G-EAU Irstea, BP 5095, 34196 Montpellier Cedex 05 France 2University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran *Correspondence: mohammad.khaledian@irstea.fr

Abstract:

The development of agricultural systems with low energy input could help to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Tillage consumes nearby 50% of the direct energy in a conventional tillage system (CT). Current agricultural policies seek to promote crop production systems that minimize fossil energy input for a high level of output. One possible solution can be conservation tillage, in which tillage will be reduced or even completely eliminated, such as direct seeding into mulch (DSM). Conservation tillage can both reduce diesel consumption and sequestrate C into soil, resulting in CO2 mitigation. The present study assessed the impact of DSM on CO2 mitigation compared with CT. An experimental study has been carried out at Lavalette experimental station in Montpellier in south-east France. The diesel consumption for field operations was measured in both DSM and CT. Soil C concentration was also measured. CO2 emission was calculated considering CO2 emission from diesel combustion and organic carbon variations in soil during the field trial. The results showed that using DSM resulted in less diesel consumption compared with CT (about 50%). Furthermore, DSM increased C content of soil (1,671 kg. ha-1 year-1). The consequence of these two positive impacts of DSM resulted in considerable CO2 mitigation.

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81–90 V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm
Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects
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Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects

V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm

Department of Mechanisation, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: valdek.loko@mail.ee, enno.koik@mail.ee, kalvi.tamm@neti.ee

Abstract:

The accession of Estonia to the EU and the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will increase the country’s agricultural income substantially. Nevertheless, because of the northern climatic conditions, profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia may have more problems than in other EU member states. The future impact of the CAP reform on grain production is being discussed. Results of different research projects are compared and the Estonian situation is analysed. It seems that there will be incentives for producers to decrease grain area in Estonia. Economic comparison was made about three tillage and sowing technologies: direct drilling, minimum and conventional tillage. Calculation results show that direct drilling and minimum tillage give better results than conventional tillage. However, the impact of direct drilling on yield and profit is more questionable and needs further research and farming experience.  During last years, rapeseed production has increased because of its higher profitability than grain production.
Possible future WTO negotiation results may also create problems in Estonian agriculture because of the northern climatic conditions.

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