Tag Archives: copper

1261–1270 K. Antoņenko, M. Duma, V. Kreicbergs and D. Kunkulberga
The influence of microelements selenium and copper on the rye malt amylase activity and flour technological properties
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The influence of microelements selenium and copper on the rye malt amylase activity and flour technological properties

K. Antoņenko¹*, M. Duma¹, V. Kreicbergs¹ and D. Kunkulberga²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, St. Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, St. Riga 22, LV-3002 Jelgava, Latvia
*antokrist@inbox.lv

Abstract:

 The positive effect of microelement selenium (Se) on the amylase activity and technological properties of malt is well known. Copper (Cu) is an essential microelement required for the normal functioning of living organisms, plants and most microorganisms. The aim of the current research was to investigate the interaction of two microelements – copper and selenium and its influence on the rye malt and flour properties. Rye grain of 96% viability were soaked and germinated at temperature +6 ± 2 °C for 3 days, using Se (VI) containing solution (Se concentration 8.5 mg L-1) or selenium with copper(II) containing solutions (Se concentration 8.5 mg L-1, Cu concentrations 3 mg L-1, 5 mg L-1, 10 mg L-1). After that sample were dried in the oven for 24 hours at temperature of + 73–108 °C. Control sample-germinating rye grain without microelements additives. Activity of amylase was determined in all experimental samples, because it characterizes the malt quality. Amylases are starch hydrolysing enzymes; more over there are known several amylases: α-amylases, β-amylases, isoamylases, etc. with different mechanisms of reaction. There different analytical methods were used for determination of α-amylase activity. The first was Ceralpha method (Megazyme test kits). The second method use complete reagents for quantitative determination of α-amylases (Phadebas Amylase Test). The third was iodometrical method. Different amounts of malt fortified with Se and Cu were added for investigation of rye flour technological properties. The falling number and the maximum viscosity were determined. The obtained results show that analysed additives of microelement copper decreases the enzyme activity. Analysed rye flour technological properties were better using malt only with selenium supplement.

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115-122 J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak
Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application
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Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application

J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: j.korzeniowska@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to verify whether new, intensive and commonly grown winter wheat cultivars in Poland differ significantly in Cu efficiency. Winter wheat is considered as one of the most sensitive agronomic species to Cu deficiency. Copper fertilization of wheat seems to be a necessity in our country due to common Cu deficiency in Polish soils.
In 2004-2006, three field experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station Osiny in Eastern Poland, where the response of five winter wheat cultivars to foliar copper application was tested. Copper was applied in the form of CuSO4·5H2O at a rate of 305 g ha-1 Cu. Fertilization was performed in spring during the full tillering stage of growth. Analysis of variance was used for statistical calculations. The means were compared using Tukey’s test.
It was demonstrated that the five cultivars responded differently to the Cu fertilization, with a medium content of this element in soil. A single Cu spray caused 5-9% increase in grain yield in three out of the five tested cultivars. The other two cultivars did not show any significant yield increase in response to copper application. Besides, all the cultivars accumulated different quantities of copper in plant tissues, such as shoots and grain. The field trials have proven that winter wheat cultivars are diverse in their nutritional demand for copper. The necessity of winter wheat fertilization with Cu depends not only on the concentration of this nutrient in soil, but also on the tolerance of a given wheat cultivar to copper deficiency.

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73–80 V. Loide, M. Nõges and J. Rebane
Assessment of the agrochemical properties of the soil using the extraction solution Mehlich 3 in Estonia
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Assessment of the agrochemical properties of the soil using the extraction solution Mehlich 3 in Estonia

V. Loide¹, M. Nõges² and J. Rebane²

¹Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: valli.loide@mail.ee
²Agricutural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, 75 501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: noges@pmk.agri.ee

Abstract:

To determine the requirement of macro- and microelements, seven extraction solutions have been employed in Estonian practice. Double lactate (DL) extraction has been used for determination of the phosphorus and potassium requirement, ammonium lactate (AL) extraction for determination of the calcium and magnesium requirement, and five more different extractions have been used for determination of microelements. Hence the need for a more appropriate extraction solution was due to the large number of the extraction solutions used until now, which made determination of the fertiliser requirement less efficient; also, in some cases, use of some extraction solutions did not yield reliable results in the case of particular plants. It was found in this study that the extraction solution Mehlich 3 is suitable for determining the fertiliser requirement of the soils of Estonia, considering their diverse agrochemical properties, while it allows to reduce the number of the extraction solutions. Also, employment of the extraction solution Mehlich 3 yielded more reliable results with respect to plants in the case of phosphorus, potassium, copper and, particularly, magnesium and manganese.

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