Tag Archives: costs

xxx O. Šařec and P. Šařec
Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters
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Results of fifteen-year monitoring of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production in selected farm businesses of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of technological and economic parameters

O. Šařec* and P. Šařec

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: sarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper presents field trials focused on technological and economic comparison of conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) technologies of soil cultivation and drilling of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). During fifteen production years starting in 2001/02, trials were set up in 520 fields of around 40 farm businesses located in all of the districts of the Czech Republic. With respect to average seed yields, no significant differences were proved with respect to tillage systems, to the application of organic fertilizers and to the fertilization during sowing. Irregular distribution of trial fields into the individual production areas influenced the outcomes thou. Concerning winter rape seed yields, costs per production unit, and earnings per hectare, the most suitable production area proved still to be the potatoes one, but particularly over the recent period also beet production area. The corn production area produced, despite some exceptions, worst results. Over the fifteen-year time, the average oilseed rape yield of all 520 monitored fields was 3.72 t ha–1. Reduced tillage attained average yield of 3.73 t ha–1, i.e. matched almost exactly the one of 3.70 t ha–1 attained by conventional tillage. Unit production costs realized by conventional tillage surpassed by 4.1% those gained by reduced tillage. Related earnings per hectare were on the other hand lower by 17.0%. With respect to fuel and labour consumption, reduced tillage brought significant savings reaching in average 20.2%, respectively 24.0%. In terms of yields, reduced tillage with deeper soil loosening proved repeatedly favourable results.

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112–122 M. Gaworski, N. Kamińska and P. Kic
Evaluation and optimization of milking in some Polish dairy farms differed in milking parlours
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Evaluation and optimization of milking in some Polish dairy farms differed in milking parlours

M. Gaworski¹*, N. Kamińska¹ and P. Kic²

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Farms are continuously growing and modernized in Poland during the last years. The increased dairy herds require also modernization of milking equipment. The aim of this paper was to present the main criteria, which could be used for the solution of principal questions important for the choosing, optimization and evaluation of milking parlours in conditions of Polish agriculture. The research was conducted on three modern dairy farms in Poland to assess effectiveness of different milking parlours use. The first farm with 60 cows was equipped by side by side milking parlour, the second farm with 85 cows was equipped by herringbone milking parlour and the third farm had 80 cows and autotandem milking parlour. The choosing and evaluation of milking parlours parameters were based on the available information and results of previous research in dairy farms in the Poland, using the mathematical model created in the Czech Republic. Time for milking and final specific direct costs were main parameters which enable evaluation and choosing of suitable milking parlour for the dairy farm. The results of measurement and calculation in current farms were compared with possible future enlarged farms to capacity of 200 cows.

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1694-1701 O. Sada, A. Leola and P. Kic
Choosing and evaluation of milking parlours for dairy farms in Estonia
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Choosing and evaluation of milking parlours for dairy farms in Estonia

O. Sada¹*, A. Leola¹ and P. Kic²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Tecnology, Department of Husbandry Engineering and Ergonomics, Fr.R.Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: oliver.sada@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the main criteria, which could be used for the choosing, optimization and evaluation of a milking parlour in two large capacity Estonian dairy farms. The choosing and evaluation of milking parlours parameters is based on the available information and results of previous research in dairy farms in the Estonia, using the mathematical model created in the Czech Republic. Time for milking and final specific direct costs are main parameters which enable evaluation and choosing of suitable milking parlour for the dairy farm. Calculation of the first farm with a capacity of 300 cows showed that in the case of rotary milking parlour with 32 milking stalls total specific direct costs per milking per cow and year would be by 25% higher than in the case of Side by Side milking parlour 2 x 12, but the time for milking would be reduced by about 25%. The second farm with capacity of 1,850 cows is equipped with a rotary milking parlour with 70 milking stalls. There are three milkers. Six milkers would bring shortening of one milking from 6.3 h to 3.3 h while preserving approximately the same total specific direct costs per milking per cow and per year. This milking parlour could be used also for the planned increase in capacity at farm to 3,300 cows. Time of one milking would be 5.6 hours, but total specific direct costs per milking per cow and per year would be reduced by 18%.

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361-371 R. Pecenka and T. Hoffmann
Harvest technology for short rotation coppices and costs of harvest, transport and storage
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Harvest technology for short rotation coppices and costs of harvest, transport and storage

R. Pecenka* and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee
100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany;
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

The lack of knowledge regarding cost-efficient design of whole production chains as
well as the availability of powerful harvest machinery are some of the main obstacles for
competitive production of bioenergy from short rotation coppices (SRC) at practice. In general,
two different harvest lines are available: the cut-and-chip and the cut-and-store lines. Whereas
the cut-and chip line provides wood chips which have to be stored until next heating season, the
product for intermediate storage of the cut-and-store line are whole trees. Both process lines have
major differences not only in harvesting, but also in transport, storage and process losses leading
to different costs of the end product wood chips. On basis of data from several SRC harvest
campaigns, production costs for wood chips have been calculated to identify best practice
solutions taking the following factors into account: chip size determined by the harvest system,
storage including related costs and losses, field size and shape as well as transport to storage.
According to the results, mower-chippers and forage harvesters can provide wood chips at lowest
production costs (43…45€ tdm-1) if field shape is favourable for harvest operations. Under less
favourable field conditions costs are approx. 7 to 14% higher. Highest production costs have to
be accepted if whole trees are harvested with a shoot harvester (64 to 72 € tdm-1). The reduction
in storage losses and storage costs are not sufficient to compensate higher machine costs for
harvest and additional comminution with mobile chippers from forestry

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33-40 J. Barwicki, S. Gach, K. Koprysz, S. Ivanovs, A. Adamovicsand O. Valainis
Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain
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Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain

J. Barwicki¹, S. Gach², K. Koprysz², S. Ivanovs³⋅*, A. Adamovics³and O. Valainis³

¹Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty, Warsaw Branch, Warsaw, Poland 2Department of Production Engineering, Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW, Warsaw, Poland 3Latvia University of Agriculture, Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Ulbroka, Latvia; *Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Elaborated test results concerning two technologies of corn grain harvesting using grain harvesters. One technology called ZKP was using a mill crusher unit with direct filling system of a plastic bag and the other one was using a mill crusher connected to a silo press and was called ZKG. Provided research and calculations enabled evaluation of the values of critical coefficients, which were the following: unitary fuel consumption and unitary labour cost requirement. Because of different corn grain yields, these values referred to a unitary area of crop and also unitary mass of corn grain. It has been proved that the total costs of harvesting and conservation of corn grain with the technology ZKP equalled 321.83 € ha-1, but the same costs with the technology ZKG equalled 245.69 € ha-1. However, when taking into consideration the unitary mass of harvested grain, lower costs appeared with the technology ZKP at the value 21.89 € t–1 compared to the 31.02 € t–1 for the technology ZKG.

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299-306 J. Priekulis and V. Murikov
Research in liquid manure removal and storage technological versions on milk farms
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Research in liquid manure removal and storage technological versions on milk farms

J. Priekulis and V. Murikov

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Latvia University of Agriculture,J.Čakstes bulv. 5, LV3001, Jelgava, Latvia; e-mail: Juris.Priekulis@llu.lv

Abstract:

Today loose housing of cows using boxes and a minimal amount of litter, resulting in liquid rather than litter manure is very common. However, there has not been much experience in manure utilization in Latvia.In our research we have discussed the possible outcome of liquid manure considering theamount of sewage water in liquid manure, the most economically effective technological versions of liquid manure removal from cow barns and transportation to storage reservoirs as well as different storage reservoir building costs, depending on their capacity and building type.It has been stated that the sewage water in the reservoir comprises 17% of the totalamount of liquid manure. Practically speaking, the operational costs of liquid manure removal systems do not depend on the kind of boxes for cow recreation, but rather on the technological equipment costs. In addition, the lagoon-type liquid manure reservoirs are cheaper. Installing cylindrical reservoirs with reinforced concrete panel walls increases the specific building costs 1.8 times, and with metal plate walls – 2.0-2.5 times.

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