Tag Archives: cow

530–539 Á.G.F. Rocha and M. Gaworski
Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system
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Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system

Á.G.F. Rocha¹ and M. Gaworski²*

¹University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP CODE: 38400–902, Brazil
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, 164 Nowoursynowska str., PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Proper sand management can be a critical aspect in the selection and successful use of sand as a bedding material for dairy cows. In many regions and countries, use of sand as a bedding material is considered as a useful alternative solution in dairy farms, where non-organic matter can serve as an equivalent of straw and other organic materials, e.g. sawdust. Assessment of sand management in the barn with dairy cows involves numerous problems, such as sand consumption, frequency of filling in the sand, quality of sand, as well as cows’ response to comfort conditions created by lying stalls covered with sand. This paper presents results of some investigations concerning sand losses in the barn with dairy cows. In practice, sand consumption is a result of natural occurrences, when cows leave lying stalls. Moreover, part of sand, together with faeces, is taken out of the stall when the lying area is handled by persons responsible for cleanliness and hygiene in the stall. This paper indicates, based on the authors’ own observations and investigations, that an improper construction of lying stalls can result in the increased losses of the sand in the barn, which translates into financial losses. In addition, a number of methods of measurement, together with the details of the structure of sand losses in the barn with a free-stall housing system, were presented. The discussion develops the issue of effective use of sand as a bedding material in the barn with dairy cows, including the need to use technical equipment in order to keep the barn floors clean and ensure the cows’ comfort.

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1285-1292 M. Gaworski and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha
Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows
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Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows

M. Gaworski¹* and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha²

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP 38400–902, Brazil
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Understanding sand properties and proper sand management is critical to the selection and successful use of sand as a dairy bedding material. Use of sand as a bedding material is an alternative solution at many dairy farms instead of straw and other organic materials. In order to successfully use and manage sand as a bedding material for cows, it is necessary to consider monitoring of the sand amount in order to create the highest possible level of lying comfort for animals. The objective of the study was to investigate a modified approach to sand level measurements to find changes in the amount of sand covering the lying area in a barn with the free-stall keeping system. The method to measure sand level changes included use of a timber board (put on the neighbouring partitions at each lying stall) to determine the distance to the bedding surface in two zones of lying stalls. Results of the investigated method of monitoring sand level changes were discussed against the background of other results presented in the specialist literature. The discussion included the problem of measurement accuracy as well as simplicity of the proposed measuring method for practical use by farmers.

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323-326 M. Malbe, T. Otstavel, I. Kodis and A. Viitak
Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia
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Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia

M. Malbe¹, T. Otstavel¹, I. Kodis¹ and A. Viitak²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13,75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: marge.malbe@eria.ee; teet.otstavel@eria.ee; ingrid.kodis@eria.ee
²Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology,Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: anu.viitak@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Milk and milk products are an important source of dietary minerals for consumers. The content of the micro and macro elements in food varies among and within countries. Information about concentration of micro and macro elements in Estonian food is limited. To get preliminary information about calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) content in raw milk, samples from 8 Estonian conventional and 2 organic dairy farms, as well as from 2 consumer milks produced by different dairies were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). No suboptimal micro and macro element concentrations were found in raw milk samples. However, concentration of dietary minerals in consumer milk was lower than the concentration in raw milk except Fe, which was higher in consumer milk.

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823-835 J. Kulpys, E. Paulauskas, V. Pilipaviþius, R. Stankeviþius
Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additives towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes
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Influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additives towards the body condition of lactation cows and biochemical milk indexes

J. Kulpys¹, E. Paulauskas², V. Pilipaviþius³, R. Stankeviþius¹

¹Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, LT-47181 Kaunas, Tilžơs g. 18; Lithuania; e-mail:
rolandas@lva.lt
²Lithuanian Agricultural Advisory Service, Stoties g. 5, LT-58343 Dotnuva-Akademija,
Lithuania
³Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu g. 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno r.
Lithuania; e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to estimate the influence of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis biomass additive on cows’ body condition, milk productivity and biochemical indexes at the beginning of lactation. Two parallel groups of Lithuanian black and white cows in their early lactation period were used for the experiment.. During the 90-day experimental period, they were fed on almost the same ration: the experimental group received 200 g of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis additives daily, mixed with the combined feed. The body condition of cows was scored according to a 5-point scale system in their dry period, after calving, and after the first, second or third month of lactation. Their productivity, milk composition and quality indexes were estimated during control milking: milk yields – on the farm and rates of composition and quality – in the laboratory of SE ‘Pieno tyrimai’. The experiment showed that the cows of the experimental group which received 200 g of cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis daily during the experimental period became 8.5-11 percent fatter (P < 0.01). Each gave on average 34 kg milk per day in the beginning of their lactation, or 6 kg more than those from the controlled group (P < 0.05). Throughout the 90-day experiment, the average income from the milk of one cow from the experimental group was 378 Lt, or 21% more than from the controlled group. The use of cyanobacteria additives was economically effective, because 1 Lt costs for ‘Spirulina platensis’ increased income from the milk by 8.4 Lt.

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