Tag Archives: crop rotation

317–326 N. Borys and A. Küüt
The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions
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The influence of basic soil tillage methods and weather conditions on the yield of spring barley in forest-steppe conditions

N. Borys¹* and A. Küüt²

¹National Science Center, Institute of Agriculture NAAS Ukraine,
Mashinostroiteley Str. 2b, UK 08162 habany, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: agrokaktys@mail.ru

Abstract:

The research on the effect the main methods of soil treatment have on its hydrophysical properties was carried out as a stationary experiment at the National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture NAAS. It included a grain crop rotation with the subsequent crop sequencing: winter wheat/grain maize/barley. In 2013–2015, the spring barley variety ‘Solntsedar’ was sown. Throughout the three years of research, the consistency of the effect of the main soil treatment methods on the overall yield stayed more or less the same. Reduction in barley grain yield against the backdrop of long-term disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is explained by the thickening of the 10–30 cm layer of soil to the critical level of 1.57 g cm-3, moisture deficiency, as a result of the over-compaction of the root layer, and an increase in the amount of sterile spikelets. As the result of our research, we have come to a conclusion that for barley, soil disking at the depth of 10–12 cm is as good as ploughing if it is used as a part of differential treatment system, which includes ploughing at the depth of 28–30 cm or chisel tilling at 43–45 cm for its preceding crops. If disking was used for all crops of the grain crop rotation, a deterioration of hydrophysical properties was observed in the barley field, which can lead to a considerable reduction in the barley yield, especially in a dry cultivation year. 

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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409-414 D. Janušauskaitė and A.Velykis
The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity
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The influence of the expansion of winter crop proportion in the rotation structure on soil biological activity

D. Janušauskaitė¹ and A.Velykis²

¹Plant Pathology and Protection Department, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry Akademija, Dotnuva, Kedainiai District, Lithuania, LT-58344; e-mail: daliaj@lzi.lt
²Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry,Joniskelis, Pasvalys District, Lithuania, LT-39301; e-mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

The effect of the expansion of the winter crop proportion in the crop rotation structure under conditions of conventional (ploughing) and sustainable (reduced) soil tillage on soil biological properties was investigated on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry over the period 2004–06. The effect of a different proportion of winter crop in the rotation on microbial populations in soil was influenced primarily by the weather conditions during the growing seasons. In different years, the number of ammonificators ranged from 5.68 to 28.37 mln g-1, the number of mineralizators ranged from 8.23 to 37.01mln g-1, fungi from 28.55 to 101.46 thousand g-1 of soil. The soil microbial amount was higher under wetter conditions. The numbers of microbes differed between soil tillage systems and had diverse impact. The number of ammonificators did not differ markedly between the soil tillage treatments; however, the number of microbes in the conventionally tilled plots exceeded that in the sustainable tillage system by 5.57%. The sustainable tillage system was positive for N assimilators and fungi. Increasing the winter crop in the rotation did not exert any strong positive effect on all microbes. Increasing the winter crop proportion was favourable for micromycetes. More bacteria were found in the rotation with 25% of winter crop, more mineral N assimilators were found in the rotation with 25% and 50% of winter crop, and fungi max under 50%, 75% and 100% of winter crop in the rotation.

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785-792 E. Demjanová, M. Macák, I. Dalovic, F Majerník, Š. Týr, J. Smatana
Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize
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Effects of tillage systems and crop rotation on weed density, weed species composition and weed biomass in maize

E. Demjanová¹, M. Macák¹, I. Dalovic,² F Majerník¹, Š. Týr¹, J. Smatana¹

¹Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk 2Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food
Resources, Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Tr. A.Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra,
Slovak Republic, milan.macak@uniag.sk
²Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia, maizescience@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The field study was conducted over seven years in south-western Slovakia to investigate the effects of different soil tillage intensities and crop rotation on weed density, weed diversity and weed dry biomass in maize. Three basic tillage treatments were the following: mouldboard ploughing to a depth of 0.30 m (conventional tillage); offset disc ploughing to a depth of 0.15 m followed by combined cultivator; twice shallow loosening to a depth of 0.10 m (both reduced tillage). Annual broadleaf weeds (17 species) were clearly the dominant weed group under all soil tillage treatments, compared to perennial weeds (6 species) and annual grassy weeds (4 species). Dominant weed species were Amaranthus retroflexus and A. powelli, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus–galli, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense. The number of species of the annual broadleaf and grassy weeds group was insignificant in conventional tillage and reduced tillage systems. Total weed density was significantly lower under the conventional tillage than the other reduced tillage systems. The main benefit of conventional tillage is a highly significant decline of perennial weeds. Only 2.6 perennial weed plants per quadrant in conventional tillage as compared to 7.5–9.0 in reduced tillage treatments were noted. Significantly less weed dry biomass was found in conventional treatment under mouldboard ploughing as compared to reduced tillage. Crop rotation did not have a significant influence on variability of species richness expressed according to Margalef’s index in maize. Tillage system was more influential than crop rotations on the weed density and diversity and weed biomass.

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263-268 E. Ilumäe, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje
Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation
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Changes the content of organic matter in soil during the whole cycle of crop rotation

E. Ilumäe*, E. Akk, A. Hansson and V. Kastanje

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, 13 Teaduse St. 75501 Saku, Estonia;
*Corresponding author; e-mail: ene.ilumäe@eria.ee

Abstract:

The ecological crop rotation in the present trial has been established as a 10-field rotation. The crop sequence was based on calculation of how much of the nutrients does one or another crop take from the soil and how much will be left in the soil after yield harvesting. The crop sequence in ecological crop rotation was: spring wheat, barley with undersown clover, clover, clover, potato, oat, pea, barley with undersown clover, spring turnip rape. The field experiments were carried out in northem Estonia during 2003–2008.After having analyzed the soil organic matter content throughout all the fields of croprotation it became evident that the alterations of organic matter content in soil were dissimilar. The alterations of organic matter content in all fields were in linear correlation (r 95 higher than 0.549, number of pairs 10). Although more than a half rotation has already passed after the beginning of the trial the results are still probably affected by the number of times the clover has been grown on any particular field.

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353-357 V. Seibutis and I. Deveikyte
The influence of short crop rotations on weed community composition
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The influence of short crop rotations on weed community composition

V. Seibutis and I. Deveikyte

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: vytautas@lzi.lt, irenad@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of crop rotations on weed density and species composition. An 8-year study was initiated in Dotnuva (Lithuania) in 1997 on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol. Ten crop rotations: peas–winter wheat–sugar beet–spring barley, peas–winter wheat–spring barley, peas–winter wheat-winter wheat, sugar beet-spring barley-winter wheat, sugar beet-peas-winter wheat, sugar beet-spring barley-peas, sugar beet-spring barley-spring rape, peas-winter wheat, sprig barley-sugar beet, winter rape-winter wheat and spring barley monocrops were investigated. It was revealed that weed densities varied between rotations. In winter wheat crops in all crop rotations the density of Fallopia convolvulus was high but there was less Lamium purpureum, Myosotis arvensis and Stellaria media at the end than at the beginning of crop rotations. The density of Elytrigia repens was high in most crop rotations investigated. The exception was crop rotations where sugar beet was involved, compared to a four-course rotation. The largest total of annual and perennial weeds was recorded in winter wheat, when the crop was grown after peas and winter rape. In all crop rotations, in the stands of spring barley the amount of Lamium purpureum, Tripleurospermum perforatum and Taraxacum officinale was 13–18% lower compared with the spring barley monocrop. Annual broad-leafed weeds in the spring barley monocrop were more numerous than in a four-course rotation but less numerous than in the other crop rotations.

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45–54 Irena Kristaponyte
Effect of fertilisation systems on the balance of plant nutrients and soil agrochemical properties
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Effect of fertilisation systems on the balance of plant nutrients and soil agrochemical properties

Irena Kristaponyte

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture Joniskelis LT-39301 Pasvalys district. Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
Fax: 370-71-38224

Abstract:

Clay loam soils are rich in available potassium, however, they contain a low or moderate content of phosphorus. At the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniskelis Research Station trials were carried out over the period of 1960–2000 on a Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (Cmg-n-w-can) – a clay loam soil in a five-course crop rotation, in which we investigated mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilisation systems. Results of the sixth rotation showed that the annual application of mineral N56P48K60 fertilisers resulted in an increase of the content of available phosphorus in 5 mg kg-1 of the soil, and the reduction of potassium content in 3 mg kg-1 of the soil, compared with the initial level. In the organic fertilisation system, the application of only 80 t ha‑1 of farmyard resulted, compared with the mineral fertilisation system, in a humus content increase in the plough layer by 0.12 percentage units and that in the phosphorus content by 26.0 mg kg-1 and potassium content by 31.0 mg kg‑1. In this system the crop productivity, compared with unfertilised crops, increased by 34.1%, however, compared with the mineral fertilisation system, it declined by 14.1%. In the organic-mineral fertilisation system, the application of 40, 60 and 80 t ha‑1 of farmyard manure and NPK fertilisers in the same amount as in the mineral fertilisation system resulted in the following increases – soil humus content by 0.18; 0.24 and 0.21 percentage units, phosphorus content by 41.0, 61.0 and 61.0 mg kg-1, potassium content by 36.0; 46.0 and 54.0 mg kg-1, and crop rotation productivity by 6.2, 7.6 and 7.8, respectively, compared with the mineral fertilisation system.

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