Tag Archives: crop rotations

471-476 V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza
Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania
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Effects of short crop rotation and soil tillage on winter wheat development in central Lithuania

V. Seibutis, I. Deveikytė and V. Feiza

Lithuanian Institute of AgricultureInstituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania;e-mail: vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

A three year (2005–2008) field experiment was conducted in Central Lithuania to study the effects of different crop rotations (spring oil-seed rape-spring barley-winter wheat; winter wheat-spring rape; winter wheat monocrop) in conventional (ploughing to a 20–22 cm depth) and reduced (stubble cultivation to a 10–12 cm depth) soil tillage systems on winter wheat yield and its components. Winter wheat grain yield increased in the three-course crop rotation in the conventional (ploughing) cultivation system. However, wheat grain yield decreased by only 1.4 % in reduced tillage (stubble cultivation) compared to conventional tillage. Shortening of crop rotations, or different soil tillage systems used, did not exert any adverse effect on the variation of the number of grains per ear and the length of straw. The results of the study indicate that the different crop rotations in two soil tillage systems in Central Lithuania did not significantly affect wheat grain yield components.

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441-445 A. Velykis and A. Satkus
Influence of crop rotations and reduced tillage on weed population dynamics under Lithuania’s heavy soil conditions
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Influence of crop rotations and reduced tillage on weed population dynamics under Lithuania’s heavy soil conditions

A. Velykis and A. Satkus

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-3930,Pasvalys District, Lithuania; tel.fax.: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments to study the weed population dynamics in cereals, under conditions of expanded winter crop proportion in rotations and reduced soil tillage, were carried out on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol at Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Variations were as follows: A. Crop rotations with different proportions of winter and spring crops: 1. Without winter crops; 2. Winter crops 25%; 3. Winter crops 50%; 4. Winter crops 75%; 5. Winter crops 100%, growing annual and perennial grasses, spring and winter wheat, triticale and barley; B. Soil primary tillage systems: 1. Conventional (ploughing). 2. Reduced (ploughing after grasses, ploughless after cereals) were investigated. The results of investigations show that increasing the proportion of winter crops in rotations during a four-year rotation resulted in reduction of perennial weeds in the cereal crops; however, the content of annual weeds was higher. The prevalent annual and perennial (14.7% of total number) weeds spread in spring cereals (wheat, triticale, barley) were more dangerous to crops than to the weed species found in winter cereals. Perennial weeds amounted to only 6.9% in winter cereals. The perennial weeds recorded in cereals were only 3.9-18.0% at the beginning of crop growing season, depending on crop rotation, however before crop harvest they reached 24.2−52.1%. When growing cereals with reduced soil tillage, the number of perennial weeds was 2.4 times higher; annual weeds, somewhat lower, and the air-dried biomass of all weeds was 44.5% higher compared to conventional tillage.

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211–218 A. Velykis and A. Satkus
Soil protection value of winter crops and reduced tillage on clay loams
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Soil protection value of winter crops and reduced tillage on clay loams

A. Velykis and A. Satkus

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-5240 Pasvalys District, Lithuania;
Tel/fax: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments to reduce soil physical degradation were carried out at Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1998–2002. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay (Gleyic Cambisol). The following was investigated: Factor A. Crop rotations with different proportions of winter and spring crops (1. Without winter crops; 2. Winter crops 25%; 3. Winter crops 50%; 4. Winter crops 75%; 5. Winter crops 100%), growing annual and perennial grasses, spring and winter wheat, triticale, and barley. Factor B. Soil tillage systems: 1. Conventional (primary soil tillage was performed by ploughing); 2. Sustainable (after grasses the soil was ploughed, after other preceding crops the soil was loosened without inverting the topsoil). Our experimental evidence suggests that increasing winter crops in the crop rotation reduced compaction of the topsoil from high to moderate, maintained up to 37.3% of higher productive moisture reserves, improved water to air ratio, and increased the crop rotation productivity up to 44.7%. The application of reduced primary tillage in a sustainable system had persistence of high soil compaction and 8.0% lower air-filled porosity at the bottom of the topsoil, but the whole topsoil reached physical maturity more evenly in the spring. The grain yield of cereals was 6.4% lower compared with the yield after conventional soil tillage. On these clay loam soils, spring cereals were more sensitive (poorer performance) to reduced soil tillage compared with winter cereals.

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