Tag Archives: crop yield

xxx K. Křížová and J. Kumhálová
Comparison of selected remote sensing sensors for crop yield variability estimation
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Comparison of selected remote sensing sensors for crop yield variability estimation

K. Křížová¹* and J. Kumhálová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: krizovak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Currently, spectral indices are very common tool how to describe various characteristics of vegetation. In fact, these are mathematical operations which are calculated using specific bands of electromagnetic spectrum. Nevertheless, remote sensing sensors can differ due to the variations in bandwidth of the particular spectral channels. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare selected sensors in terms of their capability to predict crop yield by NDVI utilization. The experiment was performed at two locations (Prague-Ruzyně and Vendolí) in the year 2015 for both locations and in 2007 for Prague-Ruzyně only, when winter barley or spring barley grew on the plots. The cloud-free satellite images were chosen and normalised difference vegetation indices (NDVI) were calculated for each image. Landsat satellite images with moderate spatial resolution (30 m per pixel) were chosen during the crop growth for selected years. The other data sources were commercial satellite images with very high spatial resolution – QuickBird (QB) (0.6 m per pixel) in 2007 and WorldView-2 (WV-2) (2 m per pixel) in 2015 for Prague-Ruzyně location; and SPOT-7 (6 m per pixel) satellite image in 2015 for Vendolí location. GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor (GS) was used for collecting NDVI data for both locations in 2015 only. NDVI calculated at each of images was compared with the yield data. The data sources were compared with each other at the same term of crop growth stage. The results showed that correlation between GS and yield was relatively weak at Ruzyně. Conversely, significant relation was found at Vendolí location. The satellite images showed stronger relation with yield than GS. Landsat satellite images had higher values of correlation coefficient (in 30 m spatial resolution) at Ruzyně in both selected years. However, at Vendolí location, SPOT-7 satellite image has significantly better results compared to Landsat image. It is necessary to do more research to define which sensor measurements are most useful for selected applications in agriculture management.

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439-444 A. Velykis, A. Satkus
Role of amendments in modifying clayey soil physical properties under conventional and reduced tillage in northern Lithuania
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Role of amendments in modifying clayey soil physical properties under conventional and reduced tillage in northern Lithuania

A. Velykis, A. Satkus

Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture andForestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania;e–mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

Investigations to improve clayey soil physical properties and conditions for applying reduced tillage to spring crops were carried out at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in a glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay soil with deeper-lying sandy loam (Endocalcari–Endohypogleyic Cambisol). Amendments for soil improvement were the following: farmyard manure – 60 t ha-1, green manure – 27 t ha-1 and lime mud – 10 t ha-1 were incorporated by a mouldboard and segment plough at 0.25 and 0.40 m depths for winter crops twice every third year. Conventional mouldboard ploughing at 0.25 m and reduced ploughless tillage at 0.25 and 0.15 m depths was applied to spring crops after incorporation of amendments. The incorporation of amendments resulted in the decrease of soil bulk density, improvement of soil aeration and water conductivity. Ploughing by a segment plough, especially with incorporation of amendments, improved the subsoil physical properties and water conductivity. However, the segment ploughing resulted in a worsening of topsoil properties due to mixing the subsoil layer with topsoil. Lime mud was more effective for subsoil improvement. Reduced ploughless tillage determined the decrease of soil porosity, worsening the soil structure and seedbed quality. Incorporation of amendments, especially farmyard manure, helps to avoid or lessens the negative effect of reduced tillage on the clayey soil physical condition and on the decrease of the spring crop yield.

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412-418 N. Mikhailouskaya and I. Bogdevitch
Effect of biofertilizers on yield and quality of long-fibred flax and cereal grains
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Effect of biofertilizers on yield and quality of long-fibred flax and cereal grains

N. Mikhailouskaya and I. Bogdevitch

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Kazintsa 62, 220108 Minsk, Belarus;e-mail:brissa5@mail.belpak.by, bionf@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Application of biofertilizers provides the implementation of biological mechanisms of plant nutrition, growth promotion and protection. These are arguments for the use of biofertilizers as elements for nutrient management in organic agriculture, along with low cost and environmental safety. Azobacterin and Kaliplant were developed in Belarus. Natural N2-fixing bacteria are acting agents of Azobacterin. Kaliplant contains a natural strain of K-mobilizing bacteria. Both strains possess P-solubilization activity. The effects of biofertilizers on crop yield and quality were studied in field experiments on Luvisol soils. The contribution of biofertilizers for the crop yield increment varied in range from 8–30%. Azobacterin applications were most effective for barley and long-fibred flax. Kaliplant inoculations were mostly profitable for winter rye and winter triticale. Biofertilizers positively influenced crop production quality. Reliable increase of protein content and the improvement of amino acid composition in cereal grains were observed.

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485-491 A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė
The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield
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The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield

A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentų 11 Akademija, LT-53356 Kaunas distr. Lithuania;e-mail: ausrasinkevicienelzuu@gmail.com

Abstract:

The application of organic mulches as a soil cover is effective in improving the quality of soil and increasing crop yield, especially in organic farming. The field experiment was carried out in the Pomological Garden of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 2005–2008. The soil type – Calc(ar)i- Endohypogleyic Luvisol. Treatments: 1) without mulching; 2) chopped wheat straw; 3) peat; 4) sawdust; 5) grass.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different mulches on soilproperties and crop yield.All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. Mulched plotsalso had higher soil moisture content throughout the experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat or sawdust. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated.Mulching decreased weed density. During all years of the experiment significantly highercrop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Peat mulch significantly decreased weed number although it has a significant negative effect on crop yield.

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542-547 A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus
Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops
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Mechanical weed control in organically grown spring oat and field pea crops

A. Velykis, S. Maiksteniene, A. Arlauskiene, I. Kristaponyte and A. Satkus

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Research Station,Joniskelis, LT–39301 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; e–mail: velykisalex@gmail.com

Abstract:

Experiments to study the effects of weed harrowing in an organic farming system were carried out during 2005–2007 at the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. Spring oat (Avena sativa L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.) crops were harrowed once and twice with a Regent spring-tine harrow at pre-emergence, early post-emergence and late post-emergence stages. This study indicates that at early growth stages of crops the uprooting effect of harrowing could be more important for weed control than at late stages. Early post-emergence harrowing (at 2–3 leaf stage) was the most effective for spring oat. Twice (pre-emergence and early post-emergence) harrowing of oat was not more effective than early post-emergence harrowing once, since early harrowing stimulates new sprouting of weeds. Pea crop damage by harrowing was less when the crop was harrowed at late post-emergence (beginning of stem elongation) stage. No difference of crop yield was determined among the treatments.

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211–218 A. Velykis and A. Satkus
Soil protection value of winter crops and reduced tillage on clay loams
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Soil protection value of winter crops and reduced tillage on clay loams

A. Velykis and A. Satkus

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-5240 Pasvalys District, Lithuania;
Tel/fax: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments to reduce soil physical degradation were carried out at Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1998–2002. The soil of the experimental site is characterised as glacial lacustrine clay loam on silty clay (Gleyic Cambisol). The following was investigated: Factor A. Crop rotations with different proportions of winter and spring crops (1. Without winter crops; 2. Winter crops 25%; 3. Winter crops 50%; 4. Winter crops 75%; 5. Winter crops 100%), growing annual and perennial grasses, spring and winter wheat, triticale, and barley. Factor B. Soil tillage systems: 1. Conventional (primary soil tillage was performed by ploughing); 2. Sustainable (after grasses the soil was ploughed, after other preceding crops the soil was loosened without inverting the topsoil). Our experimental evidence suggests that increasing winter crops in the crop rotation reduced compaction of the topsoil from high to moderate, maintained up to 37.3% of higher productive moisture reserves, improved water to air ratio, and increased the crop rotation productivity up to 44.7%. The application of reduced primary tillage in a sustainable system had persistence of high soil compaction and 8.0% lower air-filled porosity at the bottom of the topsoil, but the whole topsoil reached physical maturity more evenly in the spring. The grain yield of cereals was 6.4% lower compared with the yield after conventional soil tillage. On these clay loam soils, spring cereals were more sensitive (poorer performance) to reduced soil tillage compared with winter cereals.

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