Tag Archives: crude protein

515–520 C. Polat and A.M. Yılmaz
Comparison between feed microscopy and chemical methods for determining of crude protein and crude fiber content of commercial mixed feeds
Abstract |
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Comparison between feed microscopy and chemical methods for determining of crude protein and crude fiber content of commercial mixed feeds

C. Polat* and A.M. Yılmaz

Namik Kemal University Agriculture Faculty, Department of Animal Science,
TR59030, Tekirdağ, TURKEY
*Correcpondence: polat@nku.edu.tr

Abstract:

The use of chemical methods in the determination of protein content in feed raw
materials is time consuming and costly. The aim of this study to determine the amount of crude
protein and crude fiber in mixed feeds using methods feed microscopy and chemical methods.
Cattle feed, cattle milk feed, lamb raising feed, and meat chick feed have been used to study
mixed feeds. By determining the results to indicate that feeds microscopy method approximately
how much closer to chemical methods. The percentages of raw materials of crude protein and
crude fiber in mixed feeds were determined with stereo microscopy and compared with obtained
results of chemical methods. As a result there is no statistically difference in crude protein
between feed microscopy method and chemical method. Feed microscopy estimating method can
be used instead of chemical methods for crude protein analysis. Also, there is an important
difference (P < 0.01) between two methods for crude fiber analysis, so that it is determined that
feed microscopy method cannot be used instead of chemical method. As a result, feed microscopy
method can be suggested because crude protein content in raw materials of feed is more
economical and shorter than chemical method.

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011–023 A. Baghdadi, M. Balazadeh, A. Kashani, F. Golzardi, M. Gholamhoseini and M. Mehrnia
Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn
Abstract |
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Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn

A. Baghdadi¹, M. Balazadeh¹, A. Kashani¹, F. Golzardi², M. Gholamhoseini²* and M. Mehrnia¹

¹Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
²Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension
Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
*Correspondence: mgholamhoseini@spii.ir

Abstract:

In order to determine the best pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen rates on forage
quality traits in silage corn (SC 704), a field experiment was conducted in a split plot based on a
randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications during 2013–14 growing
season in Karaj. Main plots consisted of four pre-sowing treatments (Black fallow, Farmyard
manure and 2 green manure treatments including pre-sowing treatment of perko PVH and presowing
treatment of buko) and sub-plots included three rates of nitrogen (120, 240 and
360 kg ha−1, utilized urea source). Results showed that the effect of pre-sowing treatments on
DMD, NDF and forage yield was significant (P ≤ 0.01), so that in all traits, perko PVH and buko
treatments were the best ones to compare with black fallow and farmyard manure. Moreover,
different nitrogen levels had significant (P ≤ 0.01) effect on dry matter digestibility (DMD),
neutrals detergent fiber (NDF) and forage yield, so that with the increasing rate of nitrogen, these
traits increased. The interaction effect of pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen levels on water
soluble carbohydrates (WSC), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total ash was
significant (P ≤ 0.01). In general, results showed that the suitable component is perko PVH
treatment by using 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen fertilizer.

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343-356 J. Pozdíšek, B. Henriksen, A. Ponížil and A.-K. Løes
Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals
Abstract |
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Utilizing legume-cereal intercropping for increasing self- sufficiency on organic farms in feed for monogastric animals

J. Pozdíšek¹, B. Henriksen², A. Ponížil³ and A.-K. Løes²

¹Research Institute of Cattle Breeding, Rapotín s.r.o, Výzkumníků 267, 788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic; e-mail:jan.pozdisek@vuchs.cz
²Bioforsk - Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Organic Food and Farming Division, Gunnars veg 6, NO-6630 Tingvoll, Norway; e-mail: britt.henriksen@bioforsk.no and anne-kristin.loes@bioforsk.no
³Agritec, research, breeding and services Ltd., Zemědělská 16, 787 01 Šumperk, Czech Republic; e-mail: ponizil@agritec.cz

Abstract:

In 2009, controlled field trials were conducted on three certified organic farms with field pea (leaf type), spring barley and spring wheat in monocultures and mixtures (pea:cereal ratio 60:40) to study the possibility of producing fodder for monogastric animals under Czech conditions. By grain harvest time, seed samples were collected and analysed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, fat and crude fiber, and content of organic matter and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. Weed harrowing at various pea heights were included at one farm. Samples for analysis of tannins and trypsin-inhibitor activity (TIA) were taken from treatments with no weed harrowing (H0) and harrowings at 5 and 10 cm pea height (H2). Analyses of amino acids were conducted from H0-samples. To complement the data from the farm trials, samples of grains from treatments with the same pea and cereal varieties in plot trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 studying the effect of pea:cereal seed ratio and weed harrowing at various pea heights, were analysed. In cereals, the crude protein content increased by intercropping with pea. This increase was compensated for by a decrease in NFE. Wheat and barley grown in mixtures with peas seemed to contain more methionine than cereals in monoculture, and there tends to be higher threonine content in intercropped barley compared with barley monoculture. This is positive for the nutrition of monogastric animals.  There were no pronounced effects of intercropping on tannins or TIA or on the content of other analysed nutrients in the cereals. The chemical composition of peas was not significantly impacted by intercropping.

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357-364 V. Vasileva and A. Ilieva
Chemical composition, nitrate reductase activity and plastid pigments content in lucerne under the influence of ammonium and nitrate form mineral nitrogen
Abstract |

Chemical composition, nitrate reductase activity and plastid pigments content in lucerne under the influence of ammonium and nitrate form mineral nitrogen

V. Vasileva and A. Ilieva

Institute of Forage Crops, 89 Gen. “Vladimir Vazov” Str., Pleven 5800, Bulgaria, E-mail: viliana.vasileva@gmail.com

Abstract:

A pot trial was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, town of Pleven, Bulgaria (2003–04). Whereas ammonium and nitrate forms of mineral nitrogen are assimilated for the plants, the influence of these two forms of mineral nitrogen on the chemical composition, nitrate reductase activity and plastid pigments content of lucerne in conditions of optimum moisture and water deficiency stress was tested. Urea as a source of ammonium nitrogen and potassium nitrate as a source of nitrate nitrogen were used. Rates of 70, 140 and 210 mg N kg-1soil were applied. It was found that mineral nitrogen in ammonium form, applied at the doses of 140 and 210 mg N kg-1 soil at optimum moisture increased crude protein content by 5–13%, and in the nitrate form at the same doses, by 3–7%. Crude protein content under water deficiency stress increased by 4–21% for ammonium, and by 3–12% for the nitrate form of mineral nitrogen. When the plants were supplied insufficiently with nitrogen, water deficiency stress more strongly deteriorated the chemical composition of lucerne, crude protein decreased by 6% and crude fiber increased by 10%. The application of mineral nitrogen under optimum moisture decreased calcium and phosphorus content, and the decrease was bigger for the nitrate form (up to 10% for calcium, and 23% for phosphorus). Under water deficiency stress the content of calcium and phosphorus decreased, but there were no differences for two forms of mineral nitrogen. At the optimum moisture and water deficiency stress, there was a similar tendency to reduce nitrate reductase activity in leaves, when applied mineral nitrogen at a dose of 70 mg N kg-1 soil in both forms, and to increase at the doses of 140 and 210 mg N kg-1 soil. The total content of plastid pigments increased as compared to unfertilized control, when mineral nitrogen was applied in both forms.

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573-582 I. Jansone, S. Malecka and V. Miglane
Suitability of winter triticale varieties for bioethanol production in Latvia
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Suitability of winter triticale varieties for bioethanol production in Latvia

I. Jansone, S. Malecka and V. Miglane

State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dizstende, Talsi district, LV–3258 Latvia;e-mail: stende.selekcija@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The research was carried out at the State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute in experimental years 2007/08 and 2008/09. The subject of the research was the suitability of seven winter triticale varieties and lines for bioethanol production. Two supplementary fertilization rates of nitrogen were used (N 100 kg ha-1 and N 140 kg ha-1). The correlations of characteristics of different varieties were evaluated. During the research the analysis of grain quality (starch and crude protein content) was carried out. The theoretical bioethanol outcome (L t-1) and yield (L ha-1) were calculated by using the indicators of starch content. The results of the research show that the winter triticale variety ‘Dinaro’ and line 9402-3 with the highest theoretically calculated bioethanol outcome (489.4 L t-1 and 486.5 L t-1) and the highest starch content of the grains (681.19 g kg-1and 677.13 g kg-1) were the most suitable for the bioethanol production in Latvian conditions. No substantial effect of the fertilization methods on the starch content in grains and on the theoretically calculated ethanol outcome was observed.

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289-299 M. Järvan and L. Edesi
The effect of cultivation methods on the yield and biological quality of potato
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The effect of cultivation methods on the yield and biological quality of potato

M. Järvan and L. Edesi

Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee

Abstract:

The effect of organic and conventional methods on the yield and biological quality of potato in two field crop rotations was identified. The field trials were performed in Central-Estonia in Olustvere (58º 33΄ N, 25º 34΄ E) during two years and in North-Estonia in Saku (59º 18΄ N, 24º 39΄ E) during three years. In Olustvere the following cultivation methods were compared: organic I – without manure, organic II – with cattle manure (at the rate 60 t ha-1), and conventional (manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides were used). In organic cultivation the fertilization with manure increased the potato yield on average 36.5%. At that, the dry matter content in tubers decreased and the nitrate content increased. In conventional farming the yield was 127% higher than in the variant organic II. In organic cultivation the tubers’ content of dry matter, starch and minerals was higher than in conventional cultivation. As to the content of reducing sugars, crude protein and nitrates no significant differences were found between the cultivation methods.In Saku, the yields and biochemical composition of potato were compared in trial areasfertilized with plant compost and mineral fertilizers. Equivalent rates of NPK to both trial variants were applied during three years. With compost the yield of potato was on average 32.1% lower than with mineral fertilizers. There were no significant differences in the effect of compost and mineral fertilizers on the biological quality of potato tubers.

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125-132 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu and A. Astover
The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
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The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu² and A. Astover²

¹Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
E-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2004–2006 to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield quality of succeeding cereals. The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.91–7.70 Mg C ha-1 and 341.9–379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green material and roots. The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1, but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no significant improvement in quality indicators.

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