Tag Archives: cultivars

641–649 A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Stramkale
Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs* and V. Stramkale

Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out in 2012–2014, on the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture. Eleven sorts of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) – ‘Bialobrzeskie’, ‘Futura 75’, ‘Fedora 17’, ‘Santhica 27’, ‘Beniko’, ‘Ferimon’, ‘Felina 32’, ‘Epsilon 68’, ‘Tygra’, ‘Wojko’ and ‘Uso 31’ were sown in a sod calcareous soil (pHKCl 6.7, P 52 mg kg-1, K 128 mg kg-1, the organic matter content 21–25 g kg-1). The total seeding rate was 50 kg ha-1. The plots were fertilised as follows: N-120, P2O5– 90, K2O- 150 kg ha-1. Hemp was sown in the middle of May, in 10 m2 plots, triplicate. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices, the height and stem diameter, the harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass and the fibre content were evaluated.
Yield of dry matter on average comprised 15.06 t ha-1, depending on the cultivars. Cultivation year and cultivar notably affected hemp biomass yield. In 2012, the highest yield of dry biomass was produced from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (21.33 t ha-1) and ‘Tygra’ (20.87 t ha-1), the lowest – from ‘Bialobrzeskie’ (11.95 t ha-1). Significantly higher average yield of dry biomass was obtained from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (17.76 t ha-1), ‘Tygra’ (16.31 t ha-1), ‘Wojko’ (15.51 t ha-1) and ‘Epsilon 68’ (15.28 t ha-1), the lowest – ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Uso 31’ (13.53 t ha-1). Meteorological conditions influenced the dry biomass yield.
The aim of this study was find productive cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and clarify nitrogen fertiliser rates impact for biomass production in Latvia.

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115-122 J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak
Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application
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Variation in Response of Five Polish Winter Wheat Cultivars to Foliar Copper Application

J. Korzeniowska and E. Stanislawska-Glubiak

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy,
Department of Weed Science and Tillage Systems in Wroclaw,
Orzechowa 61, 50-540 Wroclaw, Poland; e-mail: j.korzeniowska@iung.wroclaw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to verify whether new, intensive and commonly grown winter wheat cultivars in Poland differ significantly in Cu efficiency. Winter wheat is considered as one of the most sensitive agronomic species to Cu deficiency. Copper fertilization of wheat seems to be a necessity in our country due to common Cu deficiency in Polish soils.
In 2004-2006, three field experiments were conducted in the Experimental Station Osiny in Eastern Poland, where the response of five winter wheat cultivars to foliar copper application was tested. Copper was applied in the form of CuSO4·5H2O at a rate of 305 g ha-1 Cu. Fertilization was performed in spring during the full tillering stage of growth. Analysis of variance was used for statistical calculations. The means were compared using Tukey’s test.
It was demonstrated that the five cultivars responded differently to the Cu fertilization, with a medium content of this element in soil. A single Cu spray caused 5-9% increase in grain yield in three out of the five tested cultivars. The other two cultivars did not show any significant yield increase in response to copper application. Besides, all the cultivars accumulated different quantities of copper in plant tissues, such as shoots and grain. The field trials have proven that winter wheat cultivars are diverse in their nutritional demand for copper. The necessity of winter wheat fertilization with Cu depends not only on the concentration of this nutrient in soil, but also on the tolerance of a given wheat cultivar to copper deficiency.

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374-380 A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė
The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing
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The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing

A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Investigation on 12 spring barley and 7 oat genotypes under organic growing system during 2007–2008 revealed that mean yield of oats was 3.3 t ha-1, whereas barley yielded on average 2.3 t ha-1. Also, oats were found to be more resistant to leaf diseases. Oats were severely infected by leaf rust in 2007, but the disease did not correlate (r = –0.17) with yield. The majority of barley genotypes were infected with powdery mildew in both years and with leaf spotting diseases in 2007. Leaf spotting diseases negatively influenced (r = –0.53*) yield. Oats possessing higher vegetative growth rate, higher plant height, large and prostrate leaves, and larger stems were superior to barley by canopy traits during the growing season.

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381-386 Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė
Selection of winter wheat for organic growing
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Selection of winter wheat for organic growing

Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The study was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. Sixteen registered winter wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines were tested. Correlation analysis of traits of winter wheat genotypes grown under conventional and organic systems showed stronger correlations between the traits that had been found to be environmentally more stable. Overwintering, plant height, heading, maturity, lodging and hectolitre weight strongly correlated (r = 0.74**–0.98**) between the growing systems in both years. Soil coverage, which is a very important trait for organic system showed weak or medium correlations (r = 0.43*–0.64**) between the systems tested. Yield and 1000 grain weight mostly correlated with the traits of plant vegetative development, whereas hectolitre weight showed random correlations with the other traits. The yield was found to positively correlate with soil coverage at development stages BBCH41-42, 60-65 and number of productive tillers (r = 0.31*–0.54*).

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536-541 A. Valiuškaitė, L. Raudonis, J. Lanauskas, A. Sasnauskas and E. Survilienė
Disease incidence on different cultivars of apple tree for organic growing
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Disease incidence on different cultivars of apple tree for organic growing

A. Valiuškaitė, L. Raudonis, J. Lanauskas, A. Sasnauskas and E. Survilienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Laboratory of Plant Protection, Kauno 30,LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: a.valiuskaite@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The incidence of diseases in fourteen apple cultivars and three hybrids planted in an orchard and managed under an organic system were examined in Lithuania in 2007–2008. Infection by leaf blotch (Phyllosticta spp.), apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha), bark diseases and physiological damage to fruit were evaluated. During experimental years apple trees cv. ‘Aldas’ were the most damaged by leaf blotch, the disease incidence and intensity was 42% and 13%, respectively. Cultivars ‘Florina’, ‘Enterprise®’, ‘Roksana’, ‘Rajka’ and hybrid No 20490 were damaged less than 10% by leaf blotch. The most damaged (39–55%) by scab on leaves were cvs. ‘Pilot’ and ‘Pinova’ apple trees; meanwhile, the fruits were slightly damaged. Powdery mildew was observed only in cv. ‘Lodel’, the incidence was 23%. Physiological damage was observed mostly on cvs. ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Aldas’ fruits. No bark diseases were observed on any apple tree cultivars and hybrids.

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11-20 L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas
Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
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Comparison of biological characteristics and productivity of introduced cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

L. Kmitiene, A. Zebrauskiene and A. Kmitas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, Kaunas-Akademija LT-53067, Lithuania
e-mail: ns@lzuu.lt, kmitiene@one.lt

Abstract:

There is no wide range of cultivars of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Lithuania. Only two of them – ‘Mary Washington’ and ‘D’Argenteuili hative’ – have been investigated and are recommended for cultivation, however they do not meet the modern requirements for the cultivars. Therefore these cultivars must be renewed or replaced by the newly developed and more productive cultivars. The investigations of biomorphological characteristics of introduced cultivars of asparagus were carried out in the period from 2003-06 by the Department of Horticulture of the LUA. The biological characteristics of standard cultivars of asparagus ‘Mary Washington’ (control) and introduced cultivars ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, ‘Eposs’, ‘Schneekopf’, ‘Rambo’, ‘Gartner Saat’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’, ‘Ramada’, ‘Rally’, ‘Ranger’ were investigated. Harvest period, productivity, and chemical composition were established and the indicators of shoot quality were evaluated. The results of the research showed that vegetation of bushes of the male cultivars start later but their harvest period is longer (lasting 20 – 24 days on average). In 2004, the highest yield of shoots was formed by the bushes of the male cultivars ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’, and in 2005, the highest yield was received from the bushes of standard cultivars such as ‘D’Argenteuil Primaticcio’, ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’, and ‘Eposs’. The highest yield of shoots of the cultivars under investigation was received in 2006 (third harvest year), ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’; the bushes of standard cultivars ‘Schwetzinger Meistersschub’, ‘Rambo’ and male cultivars ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ were the most productive. According to the average results of investigations, the most productive cultivars in the group of standard cultivars were ‘Schwetzinger Meisterschub’ and ‘Eposs’, and in the group of male cultivars – ‘Ravel’, ‘Ramos’ and ‘Ranger’. Shoot quality indicators (length, diameter, average mass) were in compliance with the standard quality requirements.

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43-49 E. Jariene, H. Danilcenko, J. Kulaitienė and M. Gajewski
Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity
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Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity

E. Jariene¹, H. Danilcenko¹, J. Kulaitienė¹ and M. Gajewski²

¹Lithuanian Agriculture University, LT-4324 Kaunas, Studentų 11;e-mail: hd@lzuu.lt,
²Warsaw Agricultural University, Warszawa, Nowoursynowska 166

Abstract:

An investigation of the chemical composition of seeds of various oil bearing pumpkin cultivars grown with different forms of fertilizers was conducted in a certified organic field of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture; three oil pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca L.) – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’ and ‘Herakles’ were grown in 2004–2005. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the impact of organic and chemical fertilizers on the chemical composition of seeds of different cultivars. The following fertilizers were applied: humic acid fertilizers (the rate was calculated according to the required amount of Humistar) – 30 l ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20) – 500 kg ha-1; compost (70% manure + 30% plant residues) – 40 t ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20)+ humic acid fertilizers – 500 kg ha-1 + 30 l ha-1. Standard analytical methods were used to determine crude fat, protein and fibre content. Higher amounts of crude fats were found in seeds of the control (non-fertilized) pumpkins. Compost, humic acid and complex fertilizers had non-significant effects on the synthesis of crude fats, however, they increased the amount of crude fibre in seeds. The highest amount was found in seeds of the pumpkins fertilized with humic acid and complex fertilizers. A mixture of complex and humic acid fertilizers significantly reduced the amount of crude fat in oil-cakes. Complex fertilizers and mixtures of fertilizers stimulated the process of crude protein accumulation in seeds.

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51-58 R. Sestras, E. Tamas, D. Pamfil, L. Mihalte,A. Sestras, L. Chis and C. Qin
The influence of the genotype upon the in vitro and in vivo growth of greenhouse carnations
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The influence of the genotype upon the in vitro and in vivo growth of greenhouse carnations

R. Sestras¹, E. Tamas¹, D. Pamfil¹, L. Mihalte¹,A. Sestras², L. Chis² and C. Qin³

¹University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5Manastur St., 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail: rsestras@usamvcluj.ro
²Horticultural Research Station, 3-5 Horticultorilor St., Cluj-Napoca, Romania
³School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200436, China

Abstract:

Carnations are familiar, widespread, and are among the most popular cut flowers. There is great diversity of greenhouse cultivars belonging to Dianthus caryophyllus L, habitually multiplied through cuttings or micro-propagation. In order to establish whether or not there is a connection between the vigour of the plants technically mature from the greenhouse and their in vitro growth, several traits of greenhouse carnation, grown both in vivo and in vitro were analysed in five cultivars (Polka, Tanga, Dark Tempo, Delphi and Indios). The influence of the genotype upon the vigour of the plants and upon the characteristics of the greenhouse flowers, as well as upon some features of the in vitro growth of the plantlets, was significant. The variability under in vivo conditions ranged from 5.0 to 17.8%, while the characteristics analysed in vitro showed a large span of variability values (s% = 7.9–51.0). Overall, the heritability showed high values for the analysed characteristics, both under in vivo (H2 = 0.660–0.949) and in vitro (H2 = 0.502–0.946) conditions. No statistically ensured correlations were recorded between the plant growth under in vivo conditions and of those with the same genotype under in vitro conditions; therefore the greater vigour of some genotypes from the greenhouse did not imply their more accentuated growth in vitro. The cultivars conspicuous for their superior characteristics will be used as genitors within the improvement programmes and also recommended to be tested for inclusion in the Official Catalogue of Plants.

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413-416 K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer
Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia
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Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia

K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Estonian University of Life Science, 69104Karksi-Nuia, Estonia; e-mail: krista.tiirmaa@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the economic sense, apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint is a most dangerous disease of apple trees in Estonia. Control of the disease is of major concern to apple growers and lack of control results in unmarketable fruit. Therefore it is very important for growers to know the apple scab resistance of the cultivars in the orchard, since the most susceptible ones should be avoided. Cultivating disease-resistant varieties seems to be an optimum alternative to chemical control. In 2002, 2003 and 2005 susceptibility to apple scab of 102 apple cultivars was evaluated in the apple collection garden at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. The purpose of the study was to identify cultivars in the Polli apple collection that have good scab resistance. About 30% of the cultivars assessed had very little or no disease incidence. Among thegenetically resistant cultivars were ‘Imrus’, ‘Chistotel’, ‘Orlovim’, ‘Orlovskij Pioner’, ‘Pamjat Isajeva’, ‘Pervinka’, ‘Slavyanin’, ‘Liberty’ and ‘Freedom’. Many old and local cultivars showed low incidence of disease. Rapid development of the infection was recorded on five cultivars: ‘Borovinka Ananasnaya’, ‘Pirja’, ‘Maikki’, ‘Mantet’, and ‘Red Atlas’.

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421-425 N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis
Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars
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Incidence of fungal leaf diseases and phytophagous mites in different strawberry cultivars

N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and L. Raudonis

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, Kaunas distr., LT-54333,Lithuania; e-mail: n.uselis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The incidence of fungal leaf diseases, phytophagous mites and productivity of strawberry cultivars ‘Saulenė’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Kent’, ‘Elkat’, ‘Polka’, ‘Dangė’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Pegasus’, ‘Bogota’ and ‘Pandora’ was investigated in 2004–2005 under field conditions at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture.The lowest incidence by common leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.) Sacc) wasrecorded on Dangė’, ‘Elkat’ and ‘Pegasus’. Disease prevalence ranged on average from 43–46 % and disease intensity from 14–15.7%. The most common white leaf spot was on ‘Honeyoe’ and ‘Senga Sengana’. ‘Elkat’ and ‘Polka’ were the most damaged (disease prevalence was 68–69% and intensity 36–46%) by leaf scorch (Marssonina potentilae Desm. Magn.), while the lowest incidence of leaf scorch was recorded on ‘Bogota’. The incidence of diseases varied depending on meteorological conditions during 2004–2005.The lowest infestation by strawberry mite (Tarsonemus pallidus Banks.) was recorded on‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’. Moderately infested were ‘Honeoye’, ‘Saulenė’,‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’ and highly infested, ‘Pegasus’. Low infestation by two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were ‘Bogota’, ‘Pandora’ and ‘Saulenė’, moderately – ‘Kent’ and ‘Honeoye’; the most common two-spotted spider mites were found on ‘Pegasus’.The study showed that ‘Saulenė’, ‘Pandora’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Polka’,‘Elkat’ and ‘Dangė’ were highly productive, ranging from 11 to 17 t ha-1. The productivity of ‘Pegasus’ was 9 t ha-1. Cultivars ‘Bogota’ and ‘Kent’ were averagely productive (6 – 7 t ha-1) .

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