Tag Archives: dairy farm

530–539 Á.G.F. Rocha and M. Gaworski
Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system
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Sand losses out the pens in barn with free-stall housing system

Á.G.F. Rocha¹ and M. Gaworski²*

¹University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP CODE: 38400–902, Brazil
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, 164 Nowoursynowska str., PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Proper sand management can be a critical aspect in the selection and successful use of sand as a bedding material for dairy cows. In many regions and countries, use of sand as a bedding material is considered as a useful alternative solution in dairy farms, where non-organic matter can serve as an equivalent of straw and other organic materials, e.g. sawdust. Assessment of sand management in the barn with dairy cows involves numerous problems, such as sand consumption, frequency of filling in the sand, quality of sand, as well as cows’ response to comfort conditions created by lying stalls covered with sand. This paper presents results of some investigations concerning sand losses in the barn with dairy cows. In practice, sand consumption is a result of natural occurrences, when cows leave lying stalls. Moreover, part of sand, together with faeces, is taken out of the stall when the lying area is handled by persons responsible for cleanliness and hygiene in the stall. This paper indicates, based on the authors’ own observations and investigations, that an improper construction of lying stalls can result in the increased losses of the sand in the barn, which translates into financial losses. In addition, a number of methods of measurement, together with the details of the structure of sand losses in the barn with a free-stall housing system, were presented. The discussion develops the issue of effective use of sand as a bedding material in the barn with dairy cows, including the need to use technical equipment in order to keep the barn floors clean and ensure the cows’ comfort.

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1285-1292 M. Gaworski and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha
Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows
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Method to monitor sand level changes in free-stall lying area for dairy cows

M. Gaworski¹* and Á. Garreth Ferraz Rocha²

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²University Federal of Uberlândia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology, #1720, Pará Avenue – Campus Umuarama – Uberlândia, MG – ZIP 38400–902, Brazil
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Understanding sand properties and proper sand management is critical to the selection and successful use of sand as a dairy bedding material. Use of sand as a bedding material is an alternative solution at many dairy farms instead of straw and other organic materials. In order to successfully use and manage sand as a bedding material for cows, it is necessary to consider monitoring of the sand amount in order to create the highest possible level of lying comfort for animals. The objective of the study was to investigate a modified approach to sand level measurements to find changes in the amount of sand covering the lying area in a barn with the free-stall keeping system. The method to measure sand level changes included use of a timber board (put on the neighbouring partitions at each lying stall) to determine the distance to the bedding surface in two zones of lying stalls. Results of the investigated method of monitoring sand level changes were discussed against the background of other results presented in the specialist literature. The discussion included the problem of measurement accuracy as well as simplicity of the proposed measuring method for practical use by farmers.

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1730-1736 J. Vegricht and J. Šimon
The impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows
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The impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows

J. Vegricht* and J. Šimon

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: jiri.vegricht@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

The measurements were aimed at the impact of differently solved feeding and bedding systems on dust concentration in stables for dairy cows. Dust particles can be found in the environment in which the animals are housed and can affect their welfare and health, and can also negatively affect equipment in livestock buildings. Measurements of dust aerosol on 7 different farms for dairy cows in 9 stables in total were carried out. We focused on the impact of differently solved machine lines and work procedures of feeding and bedding, especially feeding with a mixer feeder wagon, bedding with a bedding wagon (equipped with a floor conveyor, a milling cylinder and a transversal conveyor), bedding with a straw blower, laying of deep litter with a wagon equipped with a hydraulic arm and manual distribution. Technical systems are especially affected by the presence of dust particles larger than 10 μm, which fall down very quickly and easily settle on the animals and surfaces in the stable. So, we measured the concentration of dust aerosol with an aerosol monitor by means of a 10 μm filter.

The results of the measurements show that feeding with a mixer feeder wagon increases the concentration of dust particles in the stables by the least amount. Straw bedding increases the concentration of dust particles in the stables by several times. This increase, however, is short in duration, and dustiness in the stables quickly returns to the state before bedding. There is a clear, substantive difference between the differently solved bedding systems.

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165–176 R. Miljan, J. Miljan and A. Leola
Comparison of the technological and building situation of Estonian cowsheds in 1999 and 2004
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Comparison of the technological and building situation of Estonian cowsheds in 1999 and 2004

R. Miljan¹, J. Miljan² and A. Leola³

¹Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Riina.Miljan@emu.ee
²Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014,Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Jaan.Miljan@emu.ee
³Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

In 1999 an investigation of the situation of Estonian cowsheds was carried out under the leadership of the Institute of Rural Building of the Estonian Agricultural University. The aim of the research was to determine the dominant building structures of cowsheds and find out what kind of technologies were used there. This research helped to clarify the situation and allowed to make proposals as to which problematic areas should get the attention of help funds of the European Union. In 2004 a similar survey was conducted about Estonian cowsheds. As a result of the research, we will be able to see what kind of changes have taken place during the past five years. It will also help us determine which problems still require the resources of the European Union in order to make the agricultural production more efficient.

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