Tag Archives: Data Logger

836–845 G. Macrì, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto
Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry
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Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry

G. Macrì*, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT 89122 – Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: giorgio.macri@unirc.it

Abstract:

The introduction of modern forwarders to Apennines forest operations must account for the traditional forwarding units used by local logging contractors. They generally use the same machine for extraction and intermediate off-road transportation on mountain trails, inaccessible to heavy road vehicles. Conventional forwarders are not designed for fast transportation on trail and cannot replace conventional. This research set up a long-term follow-up study to determine the use pattern of three conventional tractor-trailer units (Forwarder, forestry trailer and articulated truck). The goal of this study was to gauge the potential of these machines. In particular, the study determined for both machine types: monthly usage, incidence of travelling time over total time, distance covered and travel speed. The null hypothesis was that use pattern, average travel distance and speed distribution did not differ between traditional tractor and trailer units and high-speed forwarders. For this purpose, Global Positioning System/Global System for Mobile Communications data loggers were installed for continuous real-time collection of the main work data, including position, status, speed and fuel consumption. The study showed that new forwarders could actually travel at a speed higher than 24 km h−1, and they performed both extraction and intermediate transportation. They were capable of independent relocation, which made them suitable for small-scale forestry. Both machine types were used intensively, but the annual usage of forwarders was almost twice as large as that of tractor-trailer units. Furthermore, forwarders had a 27% higher hourly productivity and a 50% higher fuel consumption per hour, compared with tractor-trailer units.

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211-218 O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo
Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood
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Ammonia emission in cowsheds and pigsties during the summer periood

O. Sada, E. Mikson and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

As is known, cows in uninsulated cowsheds can tolerate lower temperatures much better than higher temperatures, so we can say that these buildings are well suited for animals, although there are problems with workers and the working environment in uninsulated cowsheds in extreme cases, during very low and high outside temperatures. The goal of this study was to identify the outdoor climate impact on the indoor climate in cowsheds with 420, 500 and 500 cow places during winter and summertime. For that, indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and indoor ammonia content were measured simultaneously. The processed results are well applicable when designing new cattle housing or improving the indoor climate of already existing uninsulated cowsheds. Building of large pigsties with deep litter and without litter which use liquid manure removal systems has become a wide practice nowadays. Indoor climate parameters of the working environment have an impact on the human capacity for work and the productivity of animals. Enlargement of pigsties is accompanied with problems regarding the achievement of the required indoor climate for the working environment. For the purpose of studying the pigsties with different animal-keeping technologies and the simultaneous effect of temperature and relative humidity on the emission ammonia content in the air of a pigsty were measured in summer above a pig-pen at the height of 1.5 meters from the floor and were measured daily. Data logger equipment, relevant sensors and content of ammonia in the air was measured for the study by using Gas Monitor Pac III equipment. Measurement results were statistically processed by using the computer programmes AMR Win Control, Pac III Software3.nn, SAS and MS Excel.

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67-78 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer
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Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Construction of big deep-litter pigsties and pigsties without litter (using liquid manure systems) is becoming more extensive. Due to lack of knowledge concerning animal-keeping in big pigsties, it has become necessary to study the work environment in pigsties and, in particular, their indoor climate. In order to determine the impact of the outdoor climate, different methods for animal-keeping and tending activities on indoor climate during summertime, the air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia were measured on a daily basis at the height of 1.5 m from the floor above the pigsty in the centre of deep-litter (800 fattening pigs) and liquid manure system (600 young pigs) pigsties. Simultaneously outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured. Data Logger equipment with relevant sensors and Gas Monitor Pac III were used for studying the indoor climate. Hydrolog equipment was used for measuring the parameters of outdoor climate. Measurement results were processed by using computer programmes AMR Win Control, HW3 and MS Excel.It turned out that during summertime the indoor climate of pigsties was most affected byoutdoor climate and tending works. The daily average indoor temperature (17.04 and 17.60°C respectively; outdoor temperature, 18.15 and 8.75°C) and relative humidity (68.11 and 78.59% respectively; outdoor relative humidity, 71.88 and 84.19%) remained within recommended limits for animals in the deep-litter pigsty and in the pigsty without litter. However, partial floor heating had to be used in the morning in order to ensure optimum indoor temperature and relative humidity in the pigsty for young pigs. Due to good ventilation in the pigsties the daily average contents of carbon dioxide (0.06 and 0.07%) and ammonia (20.9 and 8.7 ppm) remained within standard limits. Ammonia content in pigsties was higher during tending works, reaching 43 and 27 ppm. As a result of the study, the graphical and empirical relationship was determined between ammonia concentration and indoor air both in terms of air temperature and combined effect of temperature and relative humidity.

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45–54 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter
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Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Inner climate at pigsty is in strong correlation with outdoor climate and tending work. Up to now, main research has been conducted to investigate air temperature and relative humidity, in order to be able to offer solutions to pigsty ventilation. At the same time, little data can be found about pigsty air gas content depending on pigs’ function work. With the aim of investigating the impact of outdoor climate and tending work on the inner climate at a pigsty of fatlings and youngs, the research was conducted to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia at these pigsties in winter time diurnally at the height of 1.5 meters. To measure the inner climate, Data Logger, appropriate sensors and the computer program PC AMR Win Control were used. At the same time, the winter outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using Rotronic logger. The results of the research presented in the article concern the air temperature and velocity, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia of the working environment, measured in different places and heights of the room during daytime and diurnally above the pigpen. It became evident that the pigsty’s inner air temperature was within the extent recommended, but the air relative humidity increased partly very high. The carbon dioxide content partly exceeded the established limits. The average measured ammonia also exceeded the limits in some cases but always increased during the tending work.

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