Tag Archives: direct drilling

103-112 E. Stasinskis
Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield
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Effect of preceding crop, soil tillage and herbicide application on weed and winter wheat yield

E. Stasinskis

LLU, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Management, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, LV-
3001, Latvia, e-mail: eriks@dobeleagra.lv

Abstract:

This article describes results obtained in three years of experiments (2001–2003) carried out at farm Dobele Agra SIA located in the Dobele region of Latvia. Trials were established in two different crop rotations (Factor A): 1. winter wheat sown after winter wheat, 2. winter wheat sown after winter rape. Three different soil tillage and sowing methods were compared (Factor B): 1. – minimal conservation soil tillage in 10–15 cm deep with mixing of soil; 2. – direct sowing into stubble without any previous soil cultivation; 3. – traditional soil tillage with ploughing on 25 cm with cultivation before sowing. Additionally we compared the impact of those soil tillage methods on weed infestation in winter wheat (Factor C): 1. – using herbicide Secator 0.3 kg ha-1, 2. – without herbicide treatment. A significantly smaller total number of weeds was observed in treatments where winter wheat was grown in recurrent sowing, primarily caused by differences in numbers of oil seed rape in this treatment. A significantly smaller number of weeds was also observed after traditional soil tillage with ploughing. Data analysis shows significant linear negative correlation between winter wheat yield and the number of total weed infestation and several weed species – Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Sinapis arvensis L., Matricaria perforata Merat. and Lamium purpureum L. The highest impact on changes of winter wheat grain yield was made by herbicide use – 64.1%

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349-357 D. Šimanskaitė
The impact of soil tillage minimization on sandy light loam soil
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The impact of soil tillage minimization on sandy light loam soil

D. Šimanskaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai district, Lithuania;e-mail: dana@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Experiments conducted during the period 2001–2005 at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, were designed to evaluate the effects of plough and ploughless soil tillage and methods of sowing on an Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol and to estimate their effects on soil physical properties and cereal yield. The experiment was set up in 2001 after pea harvesting. Our experimental evidence suggests that different soil tillage and sowing methods had a significant effect on soil structure, soil bulk density, soil penetration resistance, total and air-filled porosity, soil moisture and yield. In cereal crop rotation when winter wheat had been direct drilled after peas into minimally tilled soil the yield increased by 9.7%, when it had been direct drilled the yield tended to increase, compared with conventional soil tillage; the spring barley yield was 14.7% and 7.9% lower compared with conventional tillage; when it had been direct drilled the yield tended to increase compared with conventional tillage. When oats were direct drilled a non-significant yield reduction trend was observed, and when sown into minimally tilled soil the yield was similar (5.77 t ha-1) to that produced in the conventional soil tillage treatment (5.84 t ha-1). When peas were grown, both these simplified tillage methods significantly declined the yield, when peas were direct drilled, the yield declined by 44.0% and by 21.7% when drilled into minimally tilled soil by a direct drill.

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81–90 V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm
Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects
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Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects

V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm

Department of Mechanisation, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: valdek.loko@mail.ee, enno.koik@mail.ee, kalvi.tamm@neti.ee

Abstract:

The accession of Estonia to the EU and the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will increase the country’s agricultural income substantially. Nevertheless, because of the northern climatic conditions, profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia may have more problems than in other EU member states. The future impact of the CAP reform on grain production is being discussed. Results of different research projects are compared and the Estonian situation is analysed. It seems that there will be incentives for producers to decrease grain area in Estonia. Economic comparison was made about three tillage and sowing technologies: direct drilling, minimum and conventional tillage. Calculation results show that direct drilling and minimum tillage give better results than conventional tillage. However, the impact of direct drilling on yield and profit is more questionable and needs further research and farming experience.  During last years, rapeseed production has increased because of its higher profitability than grain production.
Possible future WTO negotiation results may also create problems in Estonian agriculture because of the northern climatic conditions.

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