Tag Archives: DM yield

589-602 S. Rancane, K. Makovskis, D. Lazdina, M. Daugaviete, I. Gutmane and P. Berzinš
Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants
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Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants

S. Rancane¹*, K. Makovskis², D. Lazdina², M. Daugaviete², I. Gutmane¹ and P. Berzinš¹

¹LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkop bas instituts 7, Skr veri, Latvia
2Latvia State Forest Research Institute Silava, Rigas 11, Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: 1sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the economic, social and environmental aspects, that promote choosing an agroforestry system and continuing agricultural production instead of simple afforestation of agricultural land. Material for the study was collected in an experimental demo field located in the central part of Latvia (56°41 N and 25°08 E) established in the spring of 2011, nearby Skr veri. Two legumes – fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) ‘Gale’, poor-alkoloid lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus L.) ‘Valfrids’ and two perennial grass cultivars – reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.) ‘Bamse’ and festulolium (x Festulolium pabulare) ‘Felina’ were sown between the tree rows and in monoculture on drained mineral soil. Four different fertilisation treatments for herbaceous plants – control (without fertiliser), mineral fertilisers, wastewater sludge and wood ash were used. Biomass, seed yield, agricultural management cost have been investigated since the establishment of experiment in 2011. Potential benefits from growing herbaceous plants for seed, biomass production and possible future income from tree wood and non-wood goods were calculated. Management cost of agroforestry system, plantation forest and traditional sowing were analyzed. The growth of herbaceous plants for seed production together with hybrid aspen in agroforestry system during a 5 year period has a positive balance with all types of fertilisers. The growth of herbaceous plants in a monoculture for biomass production in a 3 year period had a positive balance for all types of organic fertilisations at both cutting frequencies. Positive balance by applying mineral fertiliser was achieved only at two-cut cutting regime.

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563-572 B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons
Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries
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Evaluation of perennial grass mixtures of different species and varieties in the central part of Latvia introduced from other European countries

B. Jansone, S. Rancane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele and A. Jansons

LUA Research Institute of Agriculture, 7 Zemkopibas instituts, Skriveri, Skriveruregion, Latvia, LV-5125;e-mail: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Forage grasses growing in the wild and cultivated in fields represent many species with various properties. Scientists at the LUA Research Institute of Agriculture have for many years performed purposeful breeding work with the aim of originating new, highly productive cultivars of different grassland species with good forage quality suitable for growing under Latvia’s climatic conditions, as well as being competitive in the EU countries. A field trial was sown in 2007 to evaluate our new cultivars in the poly-component mixtures with diploid and tetraploid varieties of forage grasses and mixtures offered by other companies and countries. Twenty-two multiform grassland mixtures for cutting and pastures were compared. The test results proved that it is possible to obtain two full cuttings from these mixtures in the sowing year under good climatic conditions; the most productive mixtures yielded 8 t ha-1 DM and more. In the first year, with three cuts, DM yields ranged within 8.89–16.11 t ha-1 the highest DM yields were obtained from mixtures with the newest perennial grass cultivars of the Research Institute. The average DM yields for better swards (SK-1, SK-2, SK-3, P/2) were above 10 t ha-1 in three years. The mixtures with white clover and rhizomatous low grasses proved to be most winter-hardy. The highest protein content and digestibility in the first year of use were the characteristic features of cutting mixtures SK-5 and P/1, but in the second year, it was found in mixtures for grazing Dot-21, Dot-24, SK-6 and G-2.

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65–72 R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna
Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system
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Invasion of broad-leaved weeds into alfalfa stand during time of utilisation of alfalfa stands in low-input farming system

R. Lillak, A. Linke, R. Viiralt and T. Laidna

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: rein_lillak@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of the investigation was to determine the percentage and yield of weeds in lucerne stands during the productive period. Different cutting regimes (first and final cut date and cutting frequency) were applied as treatments for estimating the extent of the invasion of weeds. Experiment 1 was conducted in 1980–1995 with the locally-bred alfalfa cv. Jõgeva 118 to study the connection between the invasion of broad-leaved weeds in the stand and weather conditions. Experiment 2 was carried out in 1991–2003 to investigate the impact of the first cut date and cutting frequency on the total DM yield of the alfalfa stand (cv. Karlu), partial DM yield of weeds, and the percentage of weeds in the stand. Experiments 3 and 4, Medicago sativa type WL 252 HQ variety (US), were sown in Tartu and Koonu to study weed spreading and alfalfa production at different locations. The results showed that management system had a strong impact on the productivity and competition ability of alfalfa and the invasion of weeds into the stand. Decreasing cutting frequency to 2–3 harvest times per season and performing the final cut in the second half of September or in early October allowed us to successfully depress the weeds in the alfalfa stands under Estonian pedoclimatic conditions. It is especially important to avoid more intensive management when extremely rainy and cool, or opposite droughty, weather conditions (total precipitation from May to September below the equivalent of 200 mm) dominate during vegetation period.

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