Egg yolk oil as a source of bioactive compounds for infant nutrition
Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as DHA, fat–soluble vitamins, lutein, phospholipids and cholesterol. These important compounds are also found in breast milk: DHA for infant brain development, lutein for eye health, vitamins A and E to support developing cells. Egg yolk oil naturally contains vitamin D which is required for a normal bone development. Fatty acid profile of egg lipids is also close to human milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformity of egg yolk oil for infant nutrition. In this study egg yolk oil extracted from liquid egg yolk using two-stage solvent extraction with polar and non-polar solvents was used. Extracted egg yolk oil was analyzed for fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, lutein, phospholipids and cholesterol using GC and HPLC methods. Results were compared with the chemical composition of human breast milk and nutritional recommendations for infant feeding. Fatty acid profile of egg yolk oil was similar to breast milk in terms of palmitic, stearic, linoleic and α-inolenic acids. Egg yolk oil used in this study was high in DHA, but low in ARA. Vitamin A, D and E content was sufficient for infant biological needs. Lutein and phospholipid content in egg yolk oil was lower than their content in breast milk fats, but cholesterol in opposite was in much higher concentration than available in breast milk. Chemical composition of egg yolk oil still makes it an excellent source of bioactive compounds for infant nutrition.