Tag Archives: emission

737-748 I. Janoško and P. Kuchar
Evaluation of the fuel commercial additives effect on exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption and performance in diesel and petrol engine
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Evaluation of the fuel commercial additives effect on exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption and performance in diesel and petrol engine

I. Janoško* and P. Kuchar

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Technical Faculty, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.janosko@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact assessment of the additives used in diesel and petrol fuel to improve the power and emission parameters of the vehicle and its consumption. The usage of additives in engine fuels have an increasing tendency. The manufacturers claim that additives have positive impact on engine operating parameters, cleaning the fuel supply system and decreasing fuel consumption by improving the engine combustion process. Based on the above statements, measurements were performed to determine change in the engine parameters utilising additives. Measurements were performed under laboratory conditions on the MAHA MSR 500 test bench (dynamometer) to simulate free driving cycle selected by authors, which were carried out at constant engine speeds and constant load. Focus have been given on tracking of the vehicle’s external speed characteristic and measurement of selected parameters: CO, HC, O2, fuel consumption (petrol engine) and smoke, fuel consumption (diesel engine). Resulting values of the driving cycles measured before and after additives application have been then compared. The result of experiment confirmed that tested fuel additives improved performance and torque depending on engine mileage and fuel type. Tested diesel engine with the higher mileage (approx. 388 k km) showed significant increase in power (cca 3.57%) and torque while in newer petrol engine (approx. 73 k km) improvement has not been measured. Emissions were improved in both engines. Difference has been also measured in fuel economy as in petrol engine consumption insignificant increased while in the diesel engine it decreased. This paper brings new complex view on energetical and emission changes in internal combustion engines.

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1190-1199 M. Pexa, J. Čedík, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek
The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol
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The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol

M. Pexa, J. Čedík*, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The utilization of biofuels in spark ignition and compression ignition engines is the trend of the recent time. The great expectations are inserted into n-butanol as a fuel, especially for spark ignition engines. The short time use of n-butanol in the SI (spark ignition) combustion engine does not make a big problem (start of the cold engine, change of the air-fuel ratio). The purpose of this contribution is the effect of long-term use of n-butanol as a fuel for SI engine. For this purpose the small portable generator was used. The harmful emissions, fuel consumption and power of the generator was measured then the generator was operated for 300 hours on 100% n-butanol with 80% of nominal load and the measurement was repeated. The generator was loaded with adjustable electrical resistance. As a reference fuel the petrol BA 95 with no bio-component was used. During the operation on n-butanol no technical problems occurred with the generator. After 300 hours of operation on n-butanol the performance parameters slightly decreased with little impact on production of harmful emissions components.

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1162–1169 B. Peterka,, M. Pexa, J. Čedík, D. Mader and M. Kotek
Comparison of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of small combustion engine of portable generator operated on petrol and biobutanol
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Comparison of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of small combustion engine of portable generator operated on petrol and biobutanol

B. Peterka¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹, D. Mader¹ and M. Kotek²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: peterka@oikt.czu.cz

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the comparison of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of small internal combustion engines operated on petrol and biobutanol. In case of this research, small engines are represented by combustion engine of portable power generator with nominal power of 4.8 kW equipped with carburettor for fuel mixture preparation. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were measured while gradual loading of the combustion engine. BrainBee emission analyser, Bruker FTIR spectrometer and EEPS particle analyser was used for the measurement. The mass fuel consumption was monitored using laboratory scale Vibra. The initial hypothesis expected that exhaust emissions and fuel consumption will be higher in case of use of nonstandard fuels. From the viewpoint of particles count can be stated, that their productions are at very low level for both kinds of used fuels. Production of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons is higher than in case of usual automobile engine due to simple engine control system and absence of additional emission control device (catalytic converter). The fuel consumption increased while using n-butanol as a result of its lower calorific value.

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1332-1341 M. Kotek, P. Jindra and J. Mařík
Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption
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Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption

M. Kotek, P. Jindra* and J. Mařík

Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in real traffic conditions. The aim of this study was to prove or disprove correctness of the decision of Prague city government to change the speed limits from 70 km h-1 to 50 km h-1 on the parts of one main road leading to/from Prague. For measurements in real traffic conditions was used 2 typical Czech cars Skoda with manual transmission (Fabia 1.2 MPI with petrol engine and Octavia 2.0 TDI with diesel engine). Measurements were performed on both of directions on defined road segment.

At speed 50 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at 3rd and 5 times on 4th gear. Similarly at speed 70 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at the 4th and 5th gear. The aim was to operate the vehicle in the normal engine loads.
The results demonstrate the fundamental assumption that at the higher allowed vehicle speed the engine is more loaded and therefore produces a higher amount of emissions, but according to a higher vehicle speed the emissions are produced on the defined segment for the shorter time. A similar trend is evident even in fuel consumption. The results also indicate the depending on the power reserve of specific vehicle. When the vehicle is more powerful, higher permitted speed is preferable.

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577-584 T. Kotek,, M. Kotek, P. Jindra and M. Pexa
Determination of the optimal injection time for adaptation SI engine on E85 fuel using self-designed auxiliary control unit
Abstract |
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Determination of the optimal injection time for adaptation SI engine on E85 fuel using self-designed auxiliary control unit

T. Kotek¹,*, M. Kotek², P. Jindra² and M. Pexa¹

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic; *Correspondence: kotek@oikt.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic

Abstract:

Article deals with problems of the operation of spark ignition combustion engine on high-percentage of blend bioethanol. The aim of the experiment was to find the optimal value of injection time of the engine injection valves with respect to the adaptive ability of the original engine control unit (ECU) when using a special auxiliary control unit (ACU) was adjusted injection time. Special dynamic driving cycle has been designed to assess the effects of prolonged injection time on the adaptive abilities of the ECU that stemmed from a real recording vehicle’s rides with the same engine as was used in conducted experiments. The results proved that by changing the extension of the period of injection occurs a gradual adaptation of the original ECU, but this adaptation is gradual and underway predominantly in modes functional closed-loop control, thus in modes of low to medium of loads. Results of the experiment provide determination of the efficient frontier of the percentage extension injection time with regard to adaptive abilities of original ECU.

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577-584 T. Kotek,, M. Kotek, P. Jindra and M. Pexa
Determination of the optimal injection time for adaptation SI engine on E85 fuel using self-designed auxiliary control unit
Abstract |
Full text PDF (241 kB)

Determination of the optimal injection time for adaptation SI engine on E85 fuel using self-designed auxiliary control unit

T. Kotek¹,*, M. Kotek², P. Jindra² and M. Pexa¹

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic; *Correspondence: kotek@oikt.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic

Abstract:

Article deals with problems of the operation of spark ignition combustion engine on high-percentage of blend bioethanol. The aim of the experiment was to find the optimal value of injection time of the engine injection valves with respect to the adaptive ability of the original engine control unit (ECU) when using a special auxiliary control unit (ACU) was adjusted injection time. Special dynamic driving cycle has been designed to assess the effects of prolonged injection time on the adaptive abilities of the ECU that stemmed from a real recording vehicle’s rides with the same engine as was used in conducted experiments. The results proved that by changing the extension of the period of injection occurs a gradual adaptation of the original ECU, but this adaptation is gradual and underway predominantly in modes functional closed-loop control, thus in modes of low to medium of loads. Results of the experiment provide determination of the efficient frontier of the percentage extension injection time with regard to adaptive abilities of original ECU.

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