Tag Archives: emissions.

xxx M. Pexa, J. Čedík, F. Kumhála and R. Pražan
Comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher
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Comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher

M. Pexa¹*, J. Čedík¹, F. Kumhála² and R. Pražan³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The contribution is focused on comparison of mechanical and electric drive of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation by means of mathematical model. The mulcher has working width of 6 m and it is usually aggregated with tractor of minimal power of 150 kW. On the test plot the torque and power transferred trough the tractor PTO, fuel consumption and the production of gaseous emissions components were monitored. This field measurement served as a basis for modelling as well as measured complete characteristics of the combustion engine of the tractor John Deere 7930. As a main base for the modelling the record of real operation of the tractor with mulcher was used. Then, in the software product MathCad the operation of the tractor with mechanical and electrical drive of the mulcher was modelled. In the case of the electrical drive of the mulcher the tractor with internal combustion engine, connected to generator was taken into consideration. Due to overall lower efficiency of the electrical drive with generator, worse values of the fuel consumption and emissions production in comparison with mechanical drive were reached in case of electric drive. At hypothetical use of batteries (100% electro-powered tractor) and when the energy mix at Czech Republic is taken into consideration, it is possible to reach the quarter values of emissions production in comparison with combustion engine.

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783–789 P. Jindra, M. Kotek, J. Mařík and M. Vojtíšek
Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production
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Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production

P. Jindra¹*, M. Kotek¹, J. Mařík¹ and M. Vojtíšek²

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech republic
²Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Technická 4, CZ 16607 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 In recent years the European Union has exhibited a significant interest in the reduction of crude oil usage. Biofuels can be used in conventional engines but the biofuels should reduce the emissions produced by internal combustion engines. This article deals with analysis of particulate matters (PM) production in chosen biofuels burned in internal combustion engine Zetor 1505. The conventional emission analysers are capable to detect gaseous emission components but they are not able to classify PM. Analysis of PM was performed with a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 which is able to classify particles from 5.6 nm to 560 nm. The device analysed different blends of alcohol–based biofuels tested under NRSC cycle conditions. The given size of PM can be taken as an impact on human organism’s cells consequently human health. PM create an ideal medium for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), their composition and structure. Analysis of PM should become a standard component of every emission parameter assessment.

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725–732 D. Černý, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna
Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove
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Influence of biofuel moisture content on combustion and emission characteristics of stove

D. Černý*, J. Malaťák and J. Bradna

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: david.cerny@dotacenazeleno.cz

Abstract:

 The research aim was to study the effect of moisture in solid fuel on combustion in a stove and its emissions. Analysed samples were from spruce woodchips. Four samples were prepared with different moisture contents and furthermore spruce wood was used as a reference sample. Combustion device used was a stove with a fixed fire grate. Studied parameters were ambient temperature, temperature of flue gases, coefficient of excess air, and contents of oxygen and carbon monoxide in flue gases. Laboratory measurement was performed on an analyser of flue gases whose function is based on electro-chemical converters. Measured values were first converted to a referential oxygen content in flue gases. Evaluation of these values was then made by regression analyses. The course of combustion process and its quality can be seen well in functional dependence of carbon monoxide on excess air coefficient. The area of combustion was the smallest with the least moist sample (3.2%) and increases with increasing moisture. A sample with high moisture (31.1%) was already causing the fire to gradually extinguish. Because flue gas temperature is in the same range for all samples, the overall efficiency of the stove decreases sharply with fuel moisture due to specific heat of flue gases. It has been thus confirmed that fuel moisture content has a substantial influence on combustion, especially in the chosen combustion device, which has been verified by comparison with the reference fuel.

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540–546 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, F. Kumhála and R. Pražan
Estimation of mulching energy intensity
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Estimation of mulching energy intensity

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík,¹*, F. Kumhála² and R. Pražan³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and
Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural
Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01
Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Mulching is one of the energy-intensive activities in agriculture. The energy is gained from the consumed fuel. Besides the consumed fuel the combustion engine produces harmful and unharmful exhaust gases. The general trend is to reduce the production of harmful constituents of emissions as well as carbone dioxide. This can be achieved by various construction modifications or additional modifications of exhaust gases. It is possible to estimate the energy intensity in advance by several different ways. The paper presents the estimation based on measured complete characteristics of emissions production and the fuel consumption of used combustion engine and on the measured on-board data. The results show that the estimation of fuel consumption and thus also production of carbon dioxide can be relatively successful. The estimation differs quite significantly for other emissions components. During different transition modes of the combustion engine there is a change of emissions production which is hard to describe. The solution could lie in use of other parameters determining the operation mode of the engine in addition to the commonly used speed and torque of the combustion engine.

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123–133 A. Lēnerts, D. Popluga, K. Naglis-Liepa and P. Rivža
Fertilizer use efficiency impact on GHG emissions in the Latvian crop sector
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Fertilizer use efficiency impact on GHG emissions in the Latvian crop sector

A. Lēnerts¹, D. Popluga¹*, K. Naglis-Liepa¹ and P. Rivža²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Economics and Social Development,
Institute of Economics and Regional Development, Svetes street 18, LV-3001, Jelgava,
Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information technologies, Liela street 2,
LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: dina.popluga@llu.lv

Abstract:

Within increasing production activity Latvian agricultural sector has become one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Latvia. In 2013, agricultural sector contributed 21.0% of the total GHG emissions originated in Latvia (2310.1 Gg CO2eq). Analysis of agricultural GHG emissions by sources shows that direct N2O emissions from agricultural soils through the usage of synthetic fertilizers are one of the most significant GHG source in Latvia. The usage of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices in Latvian cropping systems and according to statistical data usage of synthetic fertilizers is constantly increasing, for example, in 2013 it increased by 6.9% if compared with 2012. Taking into account that over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions, this research aims to estimate how effective usage of synthetic fertilizers are in Latvian crop farms. In order to achieve the set aim an N fertilizer usage were estimated in four crop farms by giving insight into N balance and N use efficiency (NUE) rate in these farms. Research results suggest that improved N efficiency can be selected as GHG mitigation measure as it reduces N surpluses and the use and production of mineral fertiliser while maintaining yield levels. It was also concluded that improved N efficiency reduces direct N2O emissions from fertilized soils and indirect N2O emissions that occur by the release of NH3.

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303-310 T. Ivanova, M. Kaválek,, B. Havrland, M. Kolaříková and P. Skopec
Comparison of technologic parameters of pellets and other solid fuels produced from various raw materials
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Comparison of technologic parameters of pellets and other solid fuels produced from various raw materials

T. Ivanova¹, M. Kaválek¹,*, B. Havrland¹, M. Kolaříková¹ and P. Skopec²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Zikova 1903/4, CZ16636 Prague 6, Czech Republic *Correspondence: michal.kavalek@seznam.cz

Abstract:

The article relates results of experiments and problem studies, the main goal of which was comparing four alternatives of solid biofuels suitable for heating private houses by low-power boilers. The results were obtained by burning of selected biofuels in an automatic pellet boiler specifically designed for combustion of pelletized fuels with high ash content. The emissions were set up related to the mass of burnt fuels and to the fuels’ net calorific value (specific emissions), they were measured and analysed. Based on the emission concentration measurements and stoichiometric calculations, the fuel gas emissions’ properties and boiler efficiency were compared at a range of power outputs of 7.5 kW, 12.5 kW and 18.5 kW. With regard to fuel properties and boiler outputs, the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) were determined as well as emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured and compared too. The results permitted to formulate conclusions that the wood pellets were having the lowest values of measured emissions, whereby Jatropha seed cakes showed several times higher emissions in comparison with emissions from wood pellets, oil palm shells and wheat straw pellets, where the last one is a typical representative of the agricultural biomass with relatively high nitrogen content and as was shown higher emissions of NOX as compared to wood pellets. Oil palm shells measured emissions were relatively similar to wood pellets emissions, especially concerning emissions of SO2 and CO. All tested materials were having very low combustible sulphur contents and therefore the specific SO2 emissions were negligible at all these fuels. A very important finding was that the amount of emissions was dependent on boiler output, where with the output decreasing the amount of emissions was growing. The other linkage – dependence of the boiler efficiency on power output was also proved in the present paper.

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511-519 K. Kļaviņa, K. Kārkliņa and D. Blumberga
Charcoal production environmental performance
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Charcoal production environmental performance

K. Kļaviņa*, K. Kārkliņa and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Āzenes st. 12/1-616, LV1048 Riga, Latvia; *Correspondence: krista.klavina@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Charcoal is a well-known material obtained through thermal conversion of different types of biomass in an anoxic environment. The greatest share of the overall charcoal amount is produced in inefficient batch pyrolysis chambers. Thus contribution in an in-depth charcoal production process research for process optimization is of great importance. In this study an industrial experiment of charcoal production in a continuous up-to-date retort is performed. The selected industrial object has a high level of automation and process control. The retort is connected to a continuous monitoring system that records and stores the process parameter values. Apart from the process control parameter measurements attention has to be paid to the charcoal production plant pollution as this industry often gets contradictory attention towards its environmental performance. The air pollution is evaluated by air quality measurements at the production facility site. The obtained experimental results from an industrial facility with a state-of-the-art technology give an opportunity to evaluate the potential of the charcoal industry to be a sustainable player in the renewable energy market.

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511-519 K. Kļaviņa, K. Kārkliņa and D. Blumberga
Charcoal production environmental performance
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Charcoal production environmental performance

K. Kļaviņa*, K. Kārkliņa and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Āzenes st. 12/1-616, LV1048 Riga, Latvia; *Correspondence: krista.klavina@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Charcoal is a well-known material obtained through thermal conversion of different types of biomass in an anoxic environment. The greatest share of the overall charcoal amount is produced in inefficient batch pyrolysis chambers. Thus contribution in an in-depth charcoal production process research for process optimization is of great importance. In this study an industrial experiment of charcoal production in a continuous up-to-date retort is performed. The selected industrial object has a high level of automation and process control. The retort is connected to a continuous monitoring system that records and stores the process parameter values. Apart from the process control parameter measurements attention has to be paid to the charcoal production plant pollution as this industry often gets contradictory attention towards its environmental performance. The air pollution is evaluated by air quality measurements at the production facility site. The obtained experimental results from an industrial facility with a state-of-the-art technology give an opportunity to evaluate the potential of the charcoal industry to be a sustainable player in the renewable energy market.

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333-340 V. Hönig, M. Kotek and J. Mařík
Use of butanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines
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Use of butanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines

V. Hönig¹*, M. Kotek² and J. Mařík²

¹Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS-Czech University of Life SciencesPrague,Kamycka129,16521,Prague 6,CzechRepublic;
*Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz
²Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Abstract: Currently, the focus of the research and development is devoted to the wider use of fuels of plant origin focused on the possibility of producing a higher quality and use of motor fuel other than bioethanol. BioButanol is thus not only a promising alternative fuel for gasoline, but also a possible replacement for bioethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines for transportation. Butanol can be produced virtually with the same ingredients as bioethanol, but in terms of fuel property, it is a preferable alternative to bioethanol. The efficient technology for its production by direct fermentation of simple sugars by fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis or modified polysaccharides is currently the subject of intensive research work. The paper presents fuel properties of butanol and simultaneously compared with the properties of gasoline and bioethanol. It also specifies the advantages and disadvantages of its use both in mixtures and in its pure form. The article also reviews the experimental analysis of emissions in the driving cycle fuel consumption of butanol. Mixtures of butanol – gasoline 5%, 30%, 50%, 85% and 100% were selected as a fuel without further additions as compared to the automotive gasoline and ethanolic E85. Switching to fuel based butanol in FFVs is not a technical problem, particularly based on the comparison with its demonstrable benefits over bioethanol. The development of renewable sources of carbohydrates from agricultural crops butanol can also help reduce imports of petroleum fuels in support of agriculture, availability of drinking water and an increase employment in the region.

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359-366 J. Mařík, M. Pexa,, M. Kotek and V. Hönig
Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo
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Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo

J. Mařík¹, M. Pexa¹,*, M. Kotek¹ and V. Hönig²

¹Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz 2Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Due to the increasing environmental demands of the European Union for reducing emissions, it is necessary to utilize biofuels at the expense of the conventional fossil fuel BA95. Biofuels in spark-ignition engines usually use ethanol at a ratio of up to 85% to 15% of the conventional fuel BA95. Such a fuel is known as E85. Butanol also has very similar properties to ethanol. Ethanol is a higher alcohol. For comparison, ethanol and butanol fuels with conventional fuels were chosen for the vehicle Saab 9-5, turbo-charged 2.3l. This vehicle is completely adapted to operation on ethanol fuel (broad adaptation control unit, suitable sealing elements, fuel pump, etc.). The engine performance and emissions were monitored when operating on these fuels as compared to the conventional fuels BA95. It can be stated that the engine reached higher performance parameters when operating on ethanol and butanol fuels. This is due to the fact that the control unit increases the fuel supply during operation on biofuels (lower calorific value of fuel). There is no lean combustion and the possible damage to the engine during long-term operation. From the perspective of bootable showing, butanol fuel has worse parameters compared to ethanol fuel and conventional fuels.

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