Tag Archives: Estonia

433-438 T. Tammets
Estimation of extreme wet and dry days through moving totals in precipitation time series and some possibilities for their consideration in agrometeorological studies
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Estimation of extreme wet and dry days through moving totals in precipitation time series and some possibilities for their consideration in agrometeorological studies

T. Tammets

Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Toompuiestee 24, 10149 Tallinn,Estonia; e-mail: t.taam@emhi.ee

Abstract:

Moving totals of daily precipitation are a more exact tool for indicating the most extreme weather periods and their frequency than monthly or 10-day precipitation totals. Therefore the terms ‘extreme wet’ and ‘extreme dry’ are used for the last day of a period of calculating the moving total of precipitation if that is larger or smaller than the specified limits. These terms qualify a day with extra wet or dry meteorological and surrounding conditions. The number of extreme days and limits that lead to a large yield loss vary by crops and phenological phases. Calculation of moving totals in precipitation long time series in any number of successive days allows presenting the dependence of the observed maximal and minimal amount of precipitation on the number of successive days in a period. Such dependence seems to be useful in estimating the climate resources in an area. Examples are given for Jõgeva, Pärnu and Ristna precipitation time series of 1957–2008.Estimation of extreme wet and dry weather conditions on the basis of moving totals ofdaily precipitation allowed distinguishing the most drastic periods and trends of the precipitation regime in Estonia in the last 50 years. A day is considered as extreme wet when the moving total of precipitation is at least 10 mm on 10 successive days leading up to this day. A day is considered as extreme dry when there was no precipitation during the successive 20 days till the observed day. By these criteria years with especially wet or dry periods are easily distinguished. Inter-annual variability of the average number of wet and dry days in Estonia increased notably in 1957–2006. The growing trend of annual total number of extreme (wet + dry) days is statistically significant.

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706-711 E. Peetsmann, A. Luik, K. Kall, A. Vetemaa, M. Mikk and A. Peepson
Organic marketing in Estonia
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Organic marketing in Estonia

E. Peetsmann¹, A. Luik¹, K. Kall², A. Vetemaa², M. Mikk³ and A. Peepson³

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel: +372 7425 010; e-mail: elen.peetsmann@emu.ee
²Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu
³Centre of Ecological Engineering, Fr. Tuglase 1-6, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel: +372 7422 051

Abstract:

In order to foster organic marketing in Estonia, a farmer survey was conducted among organic farmers to determine where organic food is sold and how many farmers use organic labelling. A postal questionnaire was sent to 880 organic farmers, who had passed conversion periods. 313 farmers answered and 202 marketed at least one product. Estonian farmers use many different selling channels – from farm, delivery to customers, industry, processors, local markets, small shops and supermarkets, schools, kindergartens, hospitals, producers cooperative. The most common marketing channels are direct sale from the farm (88%) and delivery to customers (57%). 35% of farmers sell their products to the conventional food industry and/or processor, because there are only a few organic food processors. The reasons why organic food is sold as conventional are the absence of organic retailers and processors, especially in animal husbandry. The most common way to refer to organic farming is oral information. Only 15% of farmers use the Estonian organic logo on their products.

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413-416 K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer
Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia
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Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia

K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Estonian University of Life Science, 69104Karksi-Nuia, Estonia; e-mail: krista.tiirmaa@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the economic sense, apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint is a most dangerous disease of apple trees in Estonia. Control of the disease is of major concern to apple growers and lack of control results in unmarketable fruit. Therefore it is very important for growers to know the apple scab resistance of the cultivars in the orchard, since the most susceptible ones should be avoided. Cultivating disease-resistant varieties seems to be an optimum alternative to chemical control. In 2002, 2003 and 2005 susceptibility to apple scab of 102 apple cultivars was evaluated in the apple collection garden at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. The purpose of the study was to identify cultivars in the Polli apple collection that have good scab resistance. About 30% of the cultivars assessed had very little or no disease incidence. Among thegenetically resistant cultivars were ‘Imrus’, ‘Chistotel’, ‘Orlovim’, ‘Orlovskij Pioner’, ‘Pamjat Isajeva’, ‘Pervinka’, ‘Slavyanin’, ‘Liberty’ and ‘Freedom’. Many old and local cultivars showed low incidence of disease. Rapid development of the infection was recorded on five cultivars: ‘Borovinka Ananasnaya’, ‘Pirja’, ‘Maikki’, ‘Mantet’, and ‘Red Atlas’.

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49–62 M. Kruus
The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

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The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

M. Kruus

Institute of Plant Protection, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: gothica@online.ee

Abstract:

At present it has been firmly established that climate can be influenced by both natural forces and human activities. It is generally accepted that an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere results in the warming of the Earth’s surface. Recent changes in the European fauna of Lepidoptera have been considered as a northward shift of entire distribution areas, caused by global warming. Northern territories are invaded by temperate species, and  the process seemingly has a cyclic nature. An invasion of a new species is often followed by a rapid growth of its population and followed by its penetration into the neighbouring areas.

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37–44 H. Jänes and A. Pae
First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial
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First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial

H. Jänes¹ and A. Pae²

¹Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University, 69104 Karksi-Nuia, Viljandimaa, Estonia; e-mail: heljo11@hot.ee
²Department of Horticulture of the Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

For many years, Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. seedlings of high vigour have been the most widespread seedling rootstock in Estonia. Plum growers are interested in less vigorous plum rootstocks which are productive with good fruit quality, easily harvested, early fruiting and less expensive to manage. In a new experiment (a collaborative project together with Latvian, Lithuanian and Byelorussian scientists), two plum cultivars, Queen Victoria and Kubanskaya Kometa, grafted onto 16 different rootstocks:Prunus Ackermann, Prunus Brompton, Prunus Brompton S, Prunus G 5–22, Prunus marianna GF 8–1, Prunus St. Julien A, Prunus St. Julien GF 655/2, Prunus St. Julien INRA 2, Prunus St. Julien Noir, Prunus St. Julien d’Orleans, Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill, Prunus Pixy, Prunus domestica Wangenheims, Prunus cerasifera ‘Hamyra’, P. cerasifera (local) and P. cerasifera myrobalana, were planted in an orchard in spring 2001. The objectives of these trials were to give an assessment of newly introduced plum rootstocks and to find out their compatibility with the studied plum cultivars. According to the results obtained in the first growing season, 45 (11.7%) of the 384 trees planted in 2001 died. The lowest tree dimensions both of ‘Queen Victoria’ and ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ were noted on Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill. Trees of ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on different rootstocks started to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting (except P. cerasifera Hamyra). ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ trees grown on Prunus St. Julien INRA 2 and Prunus St. Julien Noir produced significantly better first yield than on control rootstocks. ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on Prunus St. Julien A and Prunus Pixy gave the largest fruits (41 g and 40.5 g, respectively).

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