Tag Archives: ethanol

359-366 J. Mařík, M. Pexa,, M. Kotek and V. Hönig
Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo
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Comparison of the effect of gasoline – ethanol E85 – butanol on the performance and emission characteristics of the engine Saab 9-5 2.3 l turbo

J. Mařík¹, M. Pexa¹,*, M. Kotek¹ and V. Hönig²

¹Faculty of Engineering, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz 2Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS-Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Due to the increasing environmental demands of the European Union for reducing emissions, it is necessary to utilize biofuels at the expense of the conventional fossil fuel BA95. Biofuels in spark-ignition engines usually use ethanol at a ratio of up to 85% to 15% of the conventional fuel BA95. Such a fuel is known as E85. Butanol also has very similar properties to ethanol. Ethanol is a higher alcohol. For comparison, ethanol and butanol fuels with conventional fuels were chosen for the vehicle Saab 9-5, turbo-charged 2.3l. This vehicle is completely adapted to operation on ethanol fuel (broad adaptation control unit, suitable sealing elements, fuel pump, etc.). The engine performance and emissions were monitored when operating on these fuels as compared to the conventional fuels BA95. It can be stated that the engine reached higher performance parameters when operating on ethanol and butanol fuels. This is due to the fact that the control unit increases the fuel supply during operation on biofuels (lower calorific value of fuel). There is no lean combustion and the possible damage to the engine during long-term operation. From the perspective of bootable showing, butanol fuel has worse parameters compared to ethanol fuel and conventional fuels.

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205-214 V. Pirs and M. Gailis
Research in use of fuel conversion adapters in automobiles running on bioethanol and gasoline mixtures
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Research in use of fuel conversion adapters in automobiles running on bioethanol and gasoline mixtures

V. Pirs* and M. Gailis

Motor Vehicle Institute, Faculty of Engineering, Latvia University of Agriculture,
⁵ Janis Caksteboulevard,LV-3001,Jelgava,Latvia;
*Correspondence: vilnis.pirs@llu

Abstract:

By using fuel conversion adapters, bioethanol and gasoline mixture (E85) can be used in automobiles which are designed to work with fossil fuel. Such adapters increase the amount of the injected fuel, by adjusting the opening time of injectors. Different fuel conversion adapters are available in various automobile markets, for instance, European and North American. The working principles and efficiency of usage of fuel conversion adapters are little researched and there is a lack of scientific studies in this area. The aim of this research is to explore the working properties, efficiency of usage and influence on automobile operational parameters of two different fuel conversion adapters. The authors found a significant difference in the design approach regarding availability of functions, working and regulation principles between different conversion adapters. The increase of the amount of the injected fuel is realised by prolonging of the original injector opening impulse or by generating an additional impulse. Both conversion adapters, subjected to tests, increased the amount of the injected fuel during cold start conditions. During full load conditions, full capacity of fuel injectors was reached and no further enrichment of air/fuel mixture was possible. The findings of the research can be useful for selection of a suitable fuel conversion adapter and providing guidance for designing of better adapters.

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149-155 A. Menind, L. Oper, M. Hovi, J. Kers, M. Tutt and T. Kikas
Pretreatment and usage of pulp and paper industry residues for fuels production and their energetic potential
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Pretreatment and usage of pulp and paper industry residues for fuels production and their energetic potential

A. Menind¹, L. Oper², M. Hovi¹, J. Kers³, M. Tutt¹ and T. Kikas¹

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: andres.menind@emu.ee
²Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,
Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: liis.oper@emu.ee
³Department of Polymer Materials, Tallinn University of Technology;
e-mail: jaan.kers@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview about Pulp and Paper Industry (PPI) residues, their properties and some solutions for converting those materials into fuels. The main leftovers are bark, sludge of aerobic digestion, primary floto sediment (PFS) and pulp rejects (PR). PFS and PR after applying dewatering (press fluids) have considerable biogas potential. Bark and press cake of PR are a good resource for briquetting. Ethanol potentials of bark and PR cake are presented.

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