Tag Archives: extraction

1142-1149 V. Obuka, M. Boroduskis, A. Ramata-Stunda, L. Klavins and M. Klavins
Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products
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Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products

V. Obuka¹, M. Boroduskis², A. Ramata-Stunda², L. Klavins¹ and M. Klavins¹*

¹University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia,Faculty of Biology, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Sapropel is an organic sediment from fresh water bodies that is widely distributed in the northern regions of the world. The distribution and unique properties of sapropel make it an important natural resource that can be used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and farming directly as obtained. The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction possibilities of sapropel and potential applications of its extracts. Humic substances constitute an important ingredient of sapropel, and they can be extracted by mild alkaline extraction. Humic substances from peaty sapropel have significant differences in composition and properties, thus demonstrating the impact of precursor biological materials on the properties of humic substances formed in the humification process.

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478–489 G. Macrì,, A. De Rossi, S. Papandrea, F. Micalizzi, D. Russo and G. Settineri
Evaluation of soil compaction caused by passages of farm tractor in a forest in southern Italy
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Evaluation of soil compaction caused by passages of farm tractor in a forest in southern Italy

G. Macrì¹,*, A. De Rossi¹, S. Papandrea¹, F. Micalizzi², D. Russo¹ and G. Settineri¹

¹ Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT89122 – Reggio Calabria, Italy
² Regional Department Agriculture, Cittadella Regionale – Germaneto – IT88100 Catanzaro, Italy
*Correspondence: giorgio.macri@unirc.it

Abstract:

In recent decades, the use of heavy machinery in forest management has significantly increased, causing the compaction, that often remains for many years and may contribute to a decline in long-term site productivity. Severity of the damage depends on vehicle mass, weight of the carried loads, ground morphology, and soil properties, such as moisture. In Southern Italy, timber extraction is mainly done by farm tractors and the study was carried out in a conifer stand to evaluate the changes in penetration resistance, the water content, the bulk density and the porosity, after different numbers passes 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 15 respectively, of one farm tractor (Landini – Landpower 135 TDI). The results indicated that all parameters were significantly higher in the trafficked soil portions rather than in the undisturbed ones. We can conclude that a significant relationship was observed between compaction degree and traffic intensity. In fact, the passage of forestry machines causes soil compaction, leading to significant changes in the soil structure and moisture conditions.

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1328–1346 L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, I. Steinberga, L. Klavina and M. Klavins
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of lipids in northern berries
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Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study of lipids in northern berries

L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, I. Steinberga, L. Klavina and M. Klavins*

University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, Riga, LV-1586, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

 Wild berries from forests and bogs of Northern Europe are an excellent source of natural antioxidants, vitamins and fatty acids, all of which are substances with high biological activity. This study investigates lipids extracted from fresh and powdered berries, using low-polarity solvents (chloroform, diethyl ether and others) and a mixture of chloroform and methanol. Berry lipids were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The following berries were analysed: blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.), two cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.), black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.) and rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia L.). One hundred and elevencompounds were identified and quantified in the 9 species of analysed berries. The lipid fraction contained compound classes like fatty acids, sterols, triterpenoids, alkanes, phenolic and carboxylic acids and carotenoids. All fresh berries contained high amounts of C18 unsaturated fatty acids (for example, up to 102 μg g-1 of blueberries) and phytosterols (86 μg of β-sitosterol g-1 of blueberries), and high amounts of benzoic acid were found in lingonberries (164 μg g-1). The analysed berry lipid profiles were compared using the principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The two analyses showed that the lipid profiles of the studied berries reflect their taxonomy.

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836–845 G. Macrì, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto
Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry
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Measuring the mobility parameters of tree-length forwarding systems using GPS technology in the Southern Italy forestry

G. Macrì*, G. Zimbalatti, D. Russo and A.R. Proto

Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Department of AGRARIA, Feo di Vito, IT 89122 – Reggio Calabria, Italy
*Correspondence: giorgio.macri@unirc.it

Abstract:

The introduction of modern forwarders to Apennines forest operations must account for the traditional forwarding units used by local logging contractors. They generally use the same machine for extraction and intermediate off-road transportation on mountain trails, inaccessible to heavy road vehicles. Conventional forwarders are not designed for fast transportation on trail and cannot replace conventional. This research set up a long-term follow-up study to determine the use pattern of three conventional tractor-trailer units (Forwarder, forestry trailer and articulated truck). The goal of this study was to gauge the potential of these machines. In particular, the study determined for both machine types: monthly usage, incidence of travelling time over total time, distance covered and travel speed. The null hypothesis was that use pattern, average travel distance and speed distribution did not differ between traditional tractor and trailer units and high-speed forwarders. For this purpose, Global Positioning System/Global System for Mobile Communications data loggers were installed for continuous real-time collection of the main work data, including position, status, speed and fuel consumption. The study showed that new forwarders could actually travel at a speed higher than 24 km h−1, and they performed both extraction and intermediate transportation. They were capable of independent relocation, which made them suitable for small-scale forestry. Both machine types were used intensively, but the annual usage of forwarders was almost twice as large as that of tractor-trailer units. Furthermore, forwarders had a 27% higher hourly productivity and a 50% higher fuel consumption per hour, compared with tractor-trailer units.

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