Tag Archives: fat

1396–1406 T. Michlová, H. Dragounová, R. Seydlová and A. Hejtmánková
The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region
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The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region

T. Michlová¹*, H. Dragounová², R. Seydlová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of the study was to monitor milk yield and the hygienic and nutritional quality of milk of Saanen goats in the Moravian-Silesian region in Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected once a month during the lactation period. The average milk yield in the standardized lactation was 1,100 liters. The somatic cell count in pool samples ranged from 470 x 103 to 696 x 103. The total microorganism count ranged from 3.6 x 103 to 1.4 x 105. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was proven no more than in 6.3%. The highest values of all main components of milk were achieved within a relatively short time after kidding (April 2015). The average content of fat was 3.64  0.52 g 100 ml-1, 3.17  0.16 g 100 ml-1 of protein, 2.60  0.06 g 100 ml-1 of casein, 4.56  0.24 g 100 ml-1 of lactose, and 12.02  0.80 g 100 ml-1 of solids. Average content of vitamin A was 0.27  0.14 mg kg-1 and average content of vitamin E was 0.60  0.34 mg kg-1. Content of vitamin E increased almost continuously during the lactation, and the content of vitamin A was significantly higher at the end of lactation. In lyophilized milk powder the average trace metal contents were 7.76  0.92 g kg-1 Ca, 1.62  0.26 g kg-1 Mg, 15.3  1.43 g kg-1 K, 789  111 mg kg-1 Na, 23.2  2.73 mg kg-1 Zn, and 0.85  0.55 mg kg-1 Cu. Contents of minerals varied during the lactation period, but no significant trends were observed.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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