Tag Archives: fertilisation

521–529 S. Rancane,, A. Karklins, D. Lazdina, P. Berzins, A. Bardule, A. Butlers and A. Lazdins
Biomass yield and chemical composition of Phalaris arundinacea L. using different rates of fermentation residue as fertiliser
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Biomass yield and chemical composition of Phalaris arundinacea L. using different rates of fermentation residue as fertiliser

S. Rancane¹,*, A. Karklins², D. Lazdina³, P. Berzins¹, A. Bardule³, A. Butlers³ and A. Lazdins³

¹ Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture, Zemkopibas inst. 7, Skriveri LV-5125, Latvia
² Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Lielā iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³ Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Rīgas iela 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Using biomass of various crops for bioenergy production is a common practice all over the world. Grasses, including reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), as bioenergy crops have many advantages. Therefore it is important to look for the most effective technology to produce high biomass grass yields taking into consideration the quality parameters important for this purpose, and at the same time providing sustainable plant nutrient recycling schemes. The use of fermentation residue (FR) from biogas plants as fertiliser could be environmentally and economically cost-effective, as this by-product contain considerable amount of plant nutrients. However, there is little research on the efficiency of FR use for grassland. In our experiments we evaluated the effect of FR used at different rates (from N0 to N150 kg ha-1) and different treatment techniques (once/ twice/ or three times per season) on the productivity of RCG under two-cut and single-cut harvest regime. The data of three ley years (2012–2015) show that annual dry matter yields ranged from: 3.93–11.44 t ha-1 in two-cut and 5.89–13.94 t ha-1 in single-cut regime. The highest dry matter yield was obtained using FR at: 60 kg ha-1 N using the entire amount in a single application at the beginning of the season; 120 and 150 kg ha-1 N split for three applications. The chemical composition of reed canary grass biomass was mostly influenced by harvest regime: late harvest at single-cut regime ensured more appropriate sward quality for bioenergy production with a higher carbon and lower ash, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content.

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305-314 D. Lazdina, A. Bardule, A. Lazdins and J. Stola
Use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertiliser for Salix cultivation in acid peat soils
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Use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertiliser for Salix cultivation in acid peat soils

D. Lazdina, A. Bardule, A. Lazdins and J. Stola

‘Silava’ Latvian State Forest Research Institute, Riga iela 111, Salaspils, LV–2169, Latvia; e-mail: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Two problems have become more topical in recent years – production of solid biofuel from wood and the utilisation of ash and organic waste, including waste water sludge. The purpose of this research is to model simultaneous solutions for both of these problems through their use as fertilizer and to identify useful indications for the use of waste water sludge and wood ash as fertilisers. Opportunities to boost the efficiency of the applications of waste water sludge by combined spreading with wood ash are addressed in this study. An experiment is carried out in vegetation pots with different proportions of peat, sludge and ash to determine the impact of stem and root system development related to chemical and nutrient availability. Due to these studies, it is determined that waste water sludge has a comparably small liming effect. The fertilising effect of sludge can be increased by the admixture of wood ash and dolomite. These materials reduce the acidity of the soil and provide additional nutrients. Using dolomite as a liming material in the amount of 10 t ha-1 secures a change in pH of 0.6–1.2 units in peat soil. Significant changes in pH were found just a few centimetres into the upper layer of the soil. The application of an equal amount of wood ash produces a faster effect in terms of neutralisation. The limiting element is phosphorus. However, the mineralisation of peat increases the percentile proportion of all mineral elements in substrates as well as heavy metals.

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189–202 E. Reintam, J. Kuht, H. Loogus, E. Nugis and K. Trükmann
Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, H. Loogus², E. Nugis² and K. Trükmann¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi Str. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: endla.reintam@emu.ee
²Estonian Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of soil bulk density on nutrient (N, P, K) assimilation and on cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with different levels of fertilisation. Data were collected from the research fields of the Estonian University of Life Sciences (58o23´N, 26o44´E) with four different levels of soil compaction on sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol from 2001 to 2003. The soil was compacted by a tractor MTZ-82 (with loader; total weight 4.9 Mg) before spring sowing. Four levels of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20; N80P14K40; N120P21K80) were applied using N20: P3.5: K10 fertiliser. Results of our experiments showed a high positive correlation between soil bulk density and cellular fluid pH (average r = 0.87) and negative correlation between soil bulk density and nutrient content (average r = –0.88) at highest rates of fertilisation (N80P14K40; N120P21K80) and positive correlation (r = 0.84) at lower rates of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20) in the earing phase of barley. If the soil bulk density increased up to the level 1.56 Mg m-3, there was a sudden increase of cellular fluid pH without fertiliser use. Use of fertilisers decreased the barley stress. A sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started after soil bulk density 1.61 Mg m-3. The greatest impact of soil compaction was on nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter in all fertilisation levels. The nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter decreased up to 37% by high soil bulk density depending on fertilisation. The experiment showed that the higher decrease of nutrient content and the sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started at the same soil bulk density value.

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125–138 M. Duru, J. Tallowin and P. Cruz
Functional diversity in low-input grassland farming systems: characterisation, effect and management
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Functional diversity in low-input grassland farming systems: characterisation, effect and management

M. Duru¹, J. Tallowin² and P. Cruz¹

¹UMR ARCHE, Chemin de Borde Rouge, BP52627, 31326 Castanet Tolosan, France
²Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK

Abstract:

High biodiversity in grasslands is widely perceived to have a major role in maintaining or enhancing the amenity and cultural value of landscapes in Europe. In this paper, we focus mainly at community level, evaluating factors that appear to influence biodiversity at farm and landscape levels. In order to establish generic principles we examine the maintenance of biodiversity in terms of maintaining or enhancing functional diversity (FD). We define plant functional types (PFTs), groups of species having the same function and/or the same effect in the grassland ecosystem, species identified on the basis of plant traits. These traits reflect ecological responses to nutrient input and/or defoliation frequency, and they can also have an effect on ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature, examining the relationship between several leaf and plant traits and principal ecological factors and, in turn, how these traits could influence the feed value of the grassland vegetation for herbivores. FD was determining as the range of relevant PFTs at community, farm and landscape levels. We propose a practical method of assessing agronomic value of semi-natural grasslands based on the determination of dominant PFTs by measuring traits in situ, or through using a trait database coupled to species abundance records. We then assess the relevance of the method for semi-natural grasslands subjected to several management practices.

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153–168 A. Kanal
Effects of fertilisation and edaphic properties on soil-associated Collembola in crop rotation
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Effects of fertilisation and edaphic properties on soil-associated Collembola in crop rotation

A. Kanal

Department of Geography, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46,
51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: akanal@ut.ee

Abstract:

In this study, the Collembola population and their seasonal fluctuations were measured on light-textured field soils (Cambic Arenosol and Stagnic Luvisol) in Southern Estonia. A ten-year-old field experiment with potato and spring cereals in crop rotation under different fertilisation was the main sampling area. Additional research was carried out on sandy soils cropped with spring barley. There was also considerable but not drastic variation in chemical topsoil parameters between treatments and sites. Modified Mcfayden equipments were used to extract Collembola from soil samples. The average quantities of Collembola varied within the range of 700–14 300 and 0–600 individuals m-2 for the eudaphic and hemiedaphic group, respectively. Application of organic manure and mineral nitrogen induced an increase in Collembola populations but the differences between treatments remained insignificant. The abundance of euedaphic Collembola under spring barley in September was several times higher than under potato. The influence of crop and probable amount of roots on the abundance of Collembola was more pronounced than that of fertilisation or soil texture and chemical features. It was hypothesised that the euedaphic Collembola community is subjected to density dependent regulation, despite significant year-to-year changes towards the end of the growing season.

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49–55 J. Kadaja
Influence of fertilisation on potato growth functions
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Influence of fertilisation on potato growth functions

J. Kadaja

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia; e–mail: kadaja@solo.ee

Abstract:

Aimed at elaboration of a soil fertility module for the potato production model POMOD, the determination of growth functions was carried out for the late potato variety ‘Anti’ at different fertilisation levels. These functions characterise the distribution of growth between plant organs and redistribution of the biomass of vegetative organs at their late growth stage. Results of the field experiments in 2002–2003 revealed that fertilisation decreased the maximum of root growth function and shifted the maximum of leaf growth function forward. The bigger amount of fertiliser slows down the decrease of leaf and stem growth functions and the increase of tuber growth function. Moreover, it leads to a break in the tuber growth function occurring with secondary maximums in leaf and stem growth functions. Variability of growth functions induced by fertilisation is dominant during the second half of growing period. At an early growing stage, variations between years exceed variability between fertilisation plots.

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