Tag Archives: fertilisers

589-602 S. Rancane, K. Makovskis, D. Lazdina, M. Daugaviete, I. Gutmane and P. Berzinš
Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants
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Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants

S. Rancane¹*, K. Makovskis², D. Lazdina², M. Daugaviete², I. Gutmane¹ and P. Berzinš¹

¹LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkop bas instituts 7, Skr veri, Latvia
2Latvia State Forest Research Institute Silava, Rigas 11, Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: 1sarmite.rancane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the economic, social and environmental aspects, that promote choosing an agroforestry system and continuing agricultural production instead of simple afforestation of agricultural land. Material for the study was collected in an experimental demo field located in the central part of Latvia (56°41 N and 25°08 E) established in the spring of 2011, nearby Skr veri. Two legumes – fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) ‘Gale’, poor-alkoloid lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus L.) ‘Valfrids’ and two perennial grass cultivars – reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.) ‘Bamse’ and festulolium (x Festulolium pabulare) ‘Felina’ were sown between the tree rows and in monoculture on drained mineral soil. Four different fertilisation treatments for herbaceous plants – control (without fertiliser), mineral fertilisers, wastewater sludge and wood ash were used. Biomass, seed yield, agricultural management cost have been investigated since the establishment of experiment in 2011. Potential benefits from growing herbaceous plants for seed, biomass production and possible future income from tree wood and non-wood goods were calculated. Management cost of agroforestry system, plantation forest and traditional sowing were analyzed. The growth of herbaceous plants for seed production together with hybrid aspen in agroforestry system during a 5 year period has a positive balance with all types of fertilisers. The growth of herbaceous plants in a monoculture for biomass production in a 3 year period had a positive balance for all types of organic fertilisations at both cutting frequencies. Positive balance by applying mineral fertiliser was achieved only at two-cut cutting regime.

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13-24 A. Bardule,, S. Rancane, I. Gutmane, P. Berzins, V. Stesele, D. Lazdina and A. Bardulis
The effect of fertiliser type on hybrid aspen increment and seed yield of perennial grass cultivated in the agroforestry system
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The effect of fertiliser type on hybrid aspen increment and seed yield of perennial grass cultivated in the agroforestry system

A. Bardule¹,*, S. Rancane², I. Gutmane², P. Berzins², V. Stesele², D. Lazdina¹ and A. Bardulis¹

¹Latvia State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Riga street 111, Salaspils, Latvia;
*Correspondence: arta.bardule@silava.lv
²LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkopibas instituts 7, Skriveri, Latvia

Abstract:

Agroforestry is a perspective way of biomass production which combines simultaneous growing of woody plants with agricultural crops on the same area for different purposes. The advantage of agroforestry lies in the improved efficiency of resource utilisation and smaller competition of plants for nutrients. In this system the woody plants are less influenced by lasting periods of drought, and a stable annual increase in biomass is ensured. Accordingly, agroforestry is biologically more productive, economically – more favourable, and it is more sustainable than the monocultures of forestry or agriculture separately. The work was done to test the effect of fertiliser type on the increment of two clones of hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides x Populus tremula) and the seed yield of perennial grasses (Phalaris arundinacea L., x Festulolium pabulare) and legumes (Lupinus polyphyllus L., Galega orientalis Lam.) cultivated in the agroforestry system on loam/sandy soils. Fertilisers used at the planting were wastewater sludge (dose 10 tDM ha-1) and wood ash (dose 6 tDM ha-1). Wastewater sludge fertilisation increased the stem length of hybrid aspen by 20% after the first growing season. The effect of wastewater sludge fertilisation on stem length was still significant after the second growing season. Soil and soil solution analysis indicated that the main Hybrid aspen growth response was due to the P and N supplied by fertiliser. Reed canary grass (RCG), festulolium and fodder galega can be successfully cultivated for seeds in the first year of use, locating the crop fields in the plantations of energy plants interchangeably with trees. The use of wastewater sludge provided an essential increase in seed yields for all species of herbaceous plants. However, the influence of fertilisers on the grass species was different: the greatest increase in seed yields was established by the use of wastewater sludge in RCG, mineral fertiliser in festulolium, and ash in galega, and the fertilisation provided the seed yield increase of 136%, 31% and 163%, respectively.

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147-154 M. Müller
Research of liquid contaminants influence on adhesive bond strength applied in agricultural machine construction
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Research of liquid contaminants influence on adhesive bond strength applied in agricultural machine construction

M. Müller

Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Science, Kamýcká ¹²⁹, ¹⁶⁵²¹ Prague, Czech Republic; e-mail: muller@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

An  adhesive  bonding  technology  is  a  prospective  bonding  technology  of  diverse materials.  Namely the research in the  sphere of the degradation aspects affecting the adhesive bond  during  the  technical  life  of  the  adhesive  bonded  complex  is  essential.  Mineral  and industrial fertilisers can be included as significant degradation agents. The aim of the research was to find out the relevant knowledge in the sphere of the degradation of the adhesive bonds placed in the water bath, the oil bath and the solution of the mineral and industrial  fertilisers.  The  experiment’s  results  bring  knowledge  for  producers  of  agricultural machines  introducing  adhesive  bonding  technology  into  their  production  programme.  Two-component constructional epoxy adhesives were tested which were placed into the water bath, the  oil  bath  and  the  solution  of  mineral  and  industrial  fertilisers.  Some  agents  caused  such changes in the adhesive that the adhesive bond strength decreased to zero value already after ⁹0 days.  Significant  changes  of  the  adhesive  bond  strength  occurred  in  the  interval  ¹⁵–⁴⁵  days depending on the adhesive and agents. The strength decrease was connected with the change of a  failure  area  from  cohesive  one  to  combined  and  then  to  adhesive  one.  The  research  showed that it came to diffuse seepage and to a partial corrosion of the adhesive bonded steel samples.

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347-356 D. Lazdiņa, K. Liepiņš, A. Bārdule, J. Liepiņš and A. Bārdulis
Wood ash and wastewater sludge recycling success in fast- growing deciduous tree – birch and alder plantations
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Wood ash and wastewater sludge recycling success in fast- growing deciduous tree – birch and alder plantations

D. Lazdiņa*, K. Liepiņš, A. Bārdule, J. Liepiņš and A. Bārdulis

¹Latvia State Forest Research Institute Silava, Riga Street 111 2169, Salaspils,Latvia; *Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Due to the increasing of wood as energy renewable resource in power and heat plantsthe amount of wood ash as waste will increase. Wood ash contains plant macronutrientelements P, K and different elements as micronutrients, only organic and nitrogen are missing.Wastewater sludge from small municipalities is usually clean, first-class material and contains alot of nitrogen and phosphorus. Wood ash can be a good fertiliser and a liming material not onlyfor acid organic soils, but also for mineral soils, but with a less significant effect on the treegrowth in first seasons than a nitrogen rich fertiliser wastewater sludge.The effects that wood ash and wastewater sludge have on the increment and survival of treeswere tested during the years 2011 and 2012 on loam and loamy soils at plantations of blackalder, birch and grey alder, and they were compared with the results collected in the previousresearch started in 2005. It was observed that wood ash in the first two seasons did notsignificantly increase the growth of silver birch, as wastewater sludge did, but it had a positiveeffect on the annual increment of grey alder. Fertilisation of the whole field decreased thesurvival of trees because of weed competition and different injuries.The aim of the study was to evaluate the growth of fast-growing deciduous trees seedlings asshort rotation crop under fertilisation of wood ash, and wastewater sludge on former agriculturalland.

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99–110 N. Vasiliev, A. Astover, H. Roostalu and E. Matveev
An agro-economic analysis of grain production in Estonia after its transition to market economy
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An agro-economic analysis of grain production in Estonia after its transition to market economy

N. Vasiliev¹, A. Astover¹, H. Roostalu¹ and E. Matveev²

¹Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: nivas@emu.ee
²Rural Economy Research Centre, Jäneda, Lääne-Virumaa, 73602, Estonia

Abstract:

For analysing agronomic efficiency and economic criteria, the results of variety comparison tests of cereals, performed in Estonia during twenty years, national statistics and the data of the survey of the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) for 2000–2003 were summarised. Farms whose grain production contributed more than 75% to total output were selected for analysis. At present only ~40–50% of the real yield potential of cereals is realised. In case of oilseed rape the utilisation of the yield potential is 60–65%. Among the cereals, the largest share is accounted for by barley with 25–43% and wheat with 15–29%. During four years (2000–2003), total inputs increased 21%. Total inputs were the highest in large farms. As an average for 2000–2003 FADN grain producers were profitable in all size groups but consideration of total labour costs indicates that small grain farms were unprofitable. Average farm family income was 1,376 EEK ha-1. There is a non-linear relationship between farm size and economic indicators. Farm family income increases up to ~400 ha. The increase is most significant in the size range 40–200 ha where the increase in farm size by one hectare increases profit by 7.6 EEK ha-1. Further increase will decelerate profit and the most efficient use of labour occurs in this size range as well. Cost benefit is the highest for farm size ranging from ~150 to 400 ha. Profit decreases with the increase in one annual work unit by 508 EEK ha-1 and production becomes unprofitable in case a grain farm employs more than 2.6 workers per 100 ha.

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