Tag Archives: fertilization

xxx H. Meripõld, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi
Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop
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Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop

H. Meripõld*, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi

Estonian Crop Research Institute, EE-48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
*Corresponding author: heli.meripold@etki.ee

Abstract:

Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is a forage legume that has been grown in Estonia for almost forty five years. Pure galega is known to be persistent, high-yielding crop and rich in nutrients, in particular crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Galega is usually grown in a mixture with grass in order to optimize its nutrient concentration, increase dry matter (DM) yield and improve fermentation properties. The trial plots were established on a typical soddy-calcareous soil. There are certain grass species suitable for the mixture. In this study galega mixtures with reed canary grass cv. ‘Marathon’, timothy cv. ‘Tika’, red fescue cv. ‘Kauni’ and festulolium cv. ‘Hykor’ were under investigation in three successive years (2013–2015). In order to increase competitiveness of grasses and the yield of the first cut, two N fertilization levels were used: N0 and N50 kg ha-1. Two cuts were carried out during the growing season in all three years. The total dry matter yield varied from 9.1 to 12.8 t ha-1. The NDF concentration in the DM varied from 495−559 g kg-1. Both DM-yield and NDF were dependent on the year, mixture, cutting time and fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization (N50 kg ha-1) favoured grass growth and reduced the role of galega in the sward.

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1486-1493 R. Simson, L. Tartlan, E. Nugis and V. Eremeev
The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato
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The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato

R. Simson¹*, L. Tartlan², E. Nugis¹ and V. Eremeev³

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with two potato varieties were undertaken at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2005 and 2006. Year 2005 was generally optimal for potato growth but year 2006 was dry and very warm, hence, it was adverse for growth. The effect of fertilizing on two main traits of potato, i. e. tuber dry matter (DM) and nitrate content was examined. Five rates of compound fertilizer were applied, N50P20K85, N70P28K119, N90P36K153, N110P44K187 and N130P52K221. Results indicated that DM content was largely determined by variety but it also depended on fertilizer amounts and particular environmental conditions of a year. Nitrate content of tubers was quite clearly dependent upon variety, but growing season had significant effect on final nitrate content in tubers. Water stress during early and main bulking periods resulted in high tuber nitrate levels. In order to gain tuber yield fit for intended use, it is necessary to manage nutrient acquisition based on expected yield and nutrient supply from soils.

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543-552 D. Lazdiņa, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons
The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia
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The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia

D. Lazdiņa*, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons

Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, 111 Rigas str., LV2169 Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Hybrid aspen and willows are the fastest growing tree species used for biomass production in short rotation coppice (SRC) cultures in Latvia. Poplars are suitable for cultivation in Latvia, however, their potential for this purpose as SRC in Latvia and North Eastern Europe has not yet been investigated. There is an increasing interest in using poplar clones to establish short rotation plantations. The aim of this study is to analyse the productivity of the Italian poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 and their potential use for biomass production, as well as the effect of fertilization on the development and survival of trees. The experimental plot consisted of drained mineral soil with the initial spacing of trees ranging from 9,000 to 10,000 trees ha-1 (1.5 m x 0.7–0.5 m). Weed management has been carried out on the plantation once per season every year. Four management methods were tested – control (no fertilization), fertilization with waste water sludge 10 t DM ha-1, wood ash 6 t ha-1, mineral fertilizer NPK (12:5:14) 100 kg ha-1. In the second year, the height of the trees ranged from 0.2 to 2.64 m, on average 1.12 ± 0.005 m. The annual increments during the third year ranged from 0.01–2.14 m, on average 0.787 ± 0.004 m. At the end of the third season, the tree diameters at breast height of all clones varied greatly from 0.36 cm to 4.4 cm. The trees reached average diameters of 1.48 ± 0.007 cm; the tree heights ranged from 0.36 m to 4.24 m and were 1.99 ± 0.01 m, on average at the end of the third season. Depending on the clone and treatment, the amount of fresh biomass was 1.57–10.67 t ha-1(planting density 10,000 trees), and one fifth of the biomass, on average, was located in branches. Sewage sludge fertilizer contributed to the development of the micropatogen Venturia sp., resulting in lower initial retention and delayed development. Mineral fertilizers were the most effective. No animal and frost damages were observed. Overall, the results indicate a significant potential for us for using poplar for bioenergy production, with the optimal rotation age for bioenergy production being more than 3 years.

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827-836 K. Styla, A. Sawicka
Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation
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Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation

K. Styla¹, A. Sawicka²

¹Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences,
Poznań, Poland; e-mail: styla.katarzyna@gmail.com
²Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Life Science, Poznań, Poland

Abstract:

The effect of differentiated irrigation and fertilization on the number of microorganisms in the soil of an apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation was investigated. In the experiment, three irrigation levels were used: W0 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of atmospheric precipitations, W1 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of -0.03MPa of water potential, and W2 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of – 0.01MPA of water potential. Three fertilization combinations were used, i.e. 65 kg N/ha, 65 kg N/ha and 95 kg/ha K2O as well as 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha K2O. The highest number of fungi was noted in the 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were found of 65kg N/ha and 95kg/ha combination. A high number of fungi was observed in W0 combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were confirmed in the W1 and W2 combination. A high number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria and lower number of fungi in control object (Nowina and virgin soil) were recorded.

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531-536 S. Bumane
The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality
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The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality

S. Bumane

Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, 1a Zinatnes St., Priekuli, LV 4126, Latvia;
e-mail: skbumane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Within the framework of the research program developed at the Latvian University of Agriculture (LLU), at the Research Institute of Agriculture (ZZI), Agency of LLU field trials were established and research was conducted over the period 1999–2003. In all trials, tetraploid perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ was sown to plots at a rate of 12 kg ha-1. The impact of three factors (NPK) in 17 treatments, replicated four times, were researched according to the so-called „star” scheme added to control treatment N0P0K0 + absolute MAX N120P120K160. The totalplot area was 17.5 m2, harvested area 13.5 m2. In the trial, five levels of fertilizer werecompared: – 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1of K2O. The goal of current research was to clarify the influence of mineral fertilizer optimization on forage quality formation in perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ under agro-climatic conditions of Latvia. It is concluded that N fertilizer mostly influenced herbage yield and quality characteristics of perennial ryegrass where both, crude protein (CP) content of dry matter and total yield of CP per hectare increased. In the treatments N60 and N120, the CP content in grass dry matter increased by 0.14 and 2.66%, and CP yield per hectare by 98 and 226%, respectively, compared with N0 (at P60 K80 background).

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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811-822 D.Kostova, M.Kamburova
Determination of manganese with crystal violet in plant material in different fertilization
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Determination of manganese with crystal violet in plant material in different fertilization

D.Kostova, M.Kamburova

Agricultural University – Plovdiv
12, Mendeleev Str., 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
E-mail: deny_kostova@yahoo.com

Abstract:

A study in a multiple-factor stationary field experiment with 16 variants NPK on background with and without annual fertilization with manure was carried out at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The manganese content in the roots of radishes, cultivar Red with white tails, was determined by a new extraction-photometric method with Crystal Violet. The ion-associate of manganese (VII) was completely extracted in a single extraction of only 30 s. The molar absorptivity of the associate was (1.54 ± 0.05) x 104 l mol-1 cm-1. This indicates the high sensitivity of the given reaction. Manganese has been determined by atomic-absorption method, too, in order to compare the results. It was established that fertilization has an effect upon the manganese content in the roots of radishes. The roots of radishes accumulate the highest level of manganese 116.25 mg/kg in a mineral fertilization N:P:K = 3:2:1 with 40 t/ha manure. The relationship between yield and manganese content in radish roots under the influence of fertilization has been established.

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27-35 L. Buskienė and N. Uselis
The influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on the growth and yield of raspberries cv. ‘Polana’
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The influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on the growth and yield of raspberries cv. ‘Polana’

L. Buskienė¹ and N. Uselis²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail:institutas@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail:n.uselis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out from 1998–2001 at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, according to the scheme: N60 (control); N60K90; N90; N90K130; N120; N120K180; N150;N150K240. The soil was Epicalcari – Endohypogleic cambisol, clay loam, containing 7.2% oforganic matter, 140 mg kg-1 P2O5, 125 mg kg-1 K2O, 11900 mg kg-1 CaO, 3040 mg kg-1 MgO,pHKCl –7.3.Primocane raspberries cv. ‘Polana’ fertilized with the largest amount of nitrogen fertilizers(N150) produced 20% more primocanes in comparison with the control (N60). Potassiumfertilizers increased the diameter of raspberry stems – fertilizing them with N120K180 stemdiameter resulted in an increase of 5.3%, with N90K130 and by 4.2% with N150K240 incomparison with the control.Primocane raspberries cv. ‘Polana’ fertilized with N120K180 gave the highest yieldincrement – 2.5 t ha-1, and, with N60K90 – 2.4 t ha-1 – in comparison with those fertilized onlywith nitrogen fertilizers (N60).When the rate of nitrogen fertilizers was increased from 60 to 90–150 kg ha-1, the nitrogencontent in the soil increased by approximately 25%. When the rate of potassium fertilizers was increased from 90 to 240 kg ha-1, potassium content in the soil increased to 33%. The content of potassium in raspberry cv. ‘Polana’ leaves significantly increased when fertilizing only with the highest rates of potassium fertilizers (N120K180 – N150K240) – by 12.1–19.7% – in comparisonwith control (N60).

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