Tag Archives: fertilizers

395–405 E. Haiba, L. Nei,, S. Kutti, M. Lillenberg, K. Herodes, M. Ivask, K. Kipper, R. Aro and A. Laaniste
Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost
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Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹,*, S. Kutti¹, M. Lillenberg², K. Herodes³, M. Ivask¹, K. Kipper³, R. Aro³ and A. Laaniste³

¹ Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Land application of sewage sludge compost is an important and efficient tool in the remediation of industrial landscapes and agricultural soils in Estonia. A number of studies have shown that, as a rule, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are neither completely removed by sewage treatment, nor completely degraded in the environment. In this study, degradation rates of diclofenac sodium (DFC) and triclosan (TCS) were determined during sewage sludge composting. Anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust at two different ratios (1:2 and 1:3 sludge/sawdust, v:v). Then aerobic composting was carried out. These ratios were chosen on the basis of previous studies on sewage sludge composting with different bulking agents. The initial concentration of DFC and TCS was 2 mg kg-1 in relation to dry weight (dw). Low quantities of the studied pharmaceuticals were present in sewage sludge that was used for preparing the compost mixtures used in our experiments. The background concentrations of DFC and TCS were never equal to zero. The results showed that the difference between sewage sludge and bulking agent ratios (1:2 vs 1:3) in compost samples did not significantly affect temperature profiles during the experiment. The degradation of pharmaceuticals was more complete in the compost samples where the ratio of bulking agent was higher (1:3 by volume). The average degradation level (in all compost mixtures) was 95% for DFC and 68% for TCS. Pharmaceuticals entering into the soil may affect microbial activity, plant growth and development, and may have adverse effects on living organisms.

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1583-1600 E. Haiba, L. Nei, M. Ivask, J. Peda, J. Järvis, M. Lillenberg, K. Kipper and K. Herodes
Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia
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Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹*, M. Ivask¹, J. Peda¹, J. Järvis¹, M. Lillenberg², K. Kipper³ and K. Herodes³

¹Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This review is to reflect the work addressed to the application of biosolids and especially sewage sludge as a resource in composting. A considerable drop in the use of P fertilisers can be followed since early 1990s. Due to this fact crop production in Estonia takes place at the expense of soil phosphorous (P) resources. One of the ways of increasing the fertility of agricultural lands is to use nutrient-rich sewage sludge. Unfortunately, this may cause several undesired consequences due to biological and chemical contaminants. The presence of some widely used pharmaceuticals, as ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), was evident in sewage sludge of the two Estonian largest cities, Tartu and Tallinn. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals decreased after sewage sludge digestion and composting, but they were still present in detectable amounts. Sewage sludge co-composting experiments with sawdust, peat and straw showed the degradation of fluoroquinolones (FQ) and sulfonamides (SA). Additions of sawdust clearly speeded up this process, whereas the mixtures with peat and straw performed lower abilities to decompose pharmaceutical residues. Novel methodologies were developed and experiments conducted to study the potential accumulation of fluoroquinolones FQs and SAs by food plants. Due to the low adsorption of SAs on soil particles they are ‘free’ to migrate into plants. Different behaviour is characteristic to FQs as they are accumulated in sludge. Recent years have also shown progress in vermicomposting work and in using compost in afforestation.

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1460–1466 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer
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Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer

I. Skudra¹²* and A. Ruza¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, St. Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv

Abstract:

Yield and quality of wheat grain depends on many factors such as environmental conditions, soil quality, genetic parameters and fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important factor influencing quality parameters of winter wheat. Field experiments were done at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2013 till 2015. The aim of our study was to determine effect of nitrogen fertilization and environmental conditions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ‘Kranich’ grain quality parameters. The investigated factors were six different nitrogen application norms (0 – control, 85, 153, 175+S21, 187 N kg ha-1) and differential nitrogen norm according to chlorophylmeter (Konica Minolta Ltd.) data 180 N kg ha-1 in 2013, 150 N kg ha-1 in 2014 and 205 N kg ha-1 in 2015. One more variant was added – 175 N kg ha-1 in 2015. During the study years the meteorological conditions were significantly different. Our trials results showed that protein content suitable for bread making was obtained in variants N175+S21, 180 and 187 in year 2013, in all N application forms in 2014, but in 2015 – in all applications except N0, N175+S21, N85. The meteorological conditions had factor influence (2) 46% on protein content, but fertilizer application – 35%. Strong significant relationship at the 0.01 probability level between protein content and gluten content (r = 0.99), sedimentation value (r = 0.97) and falling number (r = 0.74) was found.

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641–649 A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and V. Stramkale
Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp
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Investigations about the impact of norms of the fertilisers and cultivars upon the crop capacity biomass of industrial hemp

A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs* and V. Stramkale

Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Field trials were carried out in 2012–2014, on the Research and Study Farm ‘Pēterlauki’ of the Latvia University of Agriculture. Eleven sorts of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) – ‘Bialobrzeskie’, ‘Futura 75’, ‘Fedora 17’, ‘Santhica 27’, ‘Beniko’, ‘Ferimon’, ‘Felina 32’, ‘Epsilon 68’, ‘Tygra’, ‘Wojko’ and ‘Uso 31’ were sown in a sod calcareous soil (pHKCl 6.7, P 52 mg kg-1, K 128 mg kg-1, the organic matter content 21–25 g kg-1). The total seeding rate was 50 kg ha-1. The plots were fertilised as follows: N-120, P2O5– 90, K2O- 150 kg ha-1. Hemp was sown in the middle of May, in 10 m2 plots, triplicate. Hemp was harvested when the first matured seeds appeared. The biometrical indices, the height and stem diameter, the harvesting time, the amount of fresh and dry biomass and the fibre content were evaluated.
Yield of dry matter on average comprised 15.06 t ha-1, depending on the cultivars. Cultivation year and cultivar notably affected hemp biomass yield. In 2012, the highest yield of dry biomass was produced from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (21.33 t ha-1) and ‘Tygra’ (20.87 t ha-1), the lowest – from ‘Bialobrzeskie’ (11.95 t ha-1). Significantly higher average yield of dry biomass was obtained from cultivars ‘Futura 75’ (17.76 t ha-1), ‘Tygra’ (16.31 t ha-1), ‘Wojko’ (15.51 t ha-1) and ‘Epsilon 68’ (15.28 t ha-1), the lowest – ‘Bialobrzeskie’ and ‘Uso 31’ (13.53 t ha-1). Meteorological conditions influenced the dry biomass yield.
The aim of this study was find productive cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and clarify nitrogen fertiliser rates impact for biomass production in Latvia.

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43-49 E. Jariene, H. Danilcenko, J. Kulaitienė and M. Gajewski
Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity
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Effect of fertilizers on oil pumpkin seeds crude fat, fibre and protein quantity

E. Jariene¹, H. Danilcenko¹, J. Kulaitienė¹ and M. Gajewski²

¹Lithuanian Agriculture University, LT-4324 Kaunas, Studentų 11;e-mail: hd@lzuu.lt,
²Warsaw Agricultural University, Warszawa, Nowoursynowska 166

Abstract:

An investigation of the chemical composition of seeds of various oil bearing pumpkin cultivars grown with different forms of fertilizers was conducted in a certified organic field of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture; three oil pumpkin cultivars (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca L.) – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’ and ‘Herakles’ were grown in 2004–2005. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the impact of organic and chemical fertilizers on the chemical composition of seeds of different cultivars. The following fertilizers were applied: humic acid fertilizers (the rate was calculated according to the required amount of Humistar) – 30 l ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20) – 500 kg ha-1; compost (70% manure + 30% plant residues) – 40 t ha-1; complex fertilizers (N:P:K – 10:10:20)+ humic acid fertilizers – 500 kg ha-1 + 30 l ha-1. Standard analytical methods were used to determine crude fat, protein and fibre content. Higher amounts of crude fats were found in seeds of the control (non-fertilized) pumpkins. Compost, humic acid and complex fertilizers had non-significant effects on the synthesis of crude fats, however, they increased the amount of crude fibre in seeds. The highest amount was found in seeds of the pumpkins fertilized with humic acid and complex fertilizers. A mixture of complex and humic acid fertilizers significantly reduced the amount of crude fat in oil-cakes. Complex fertilizers and mixtures of fertilizers stimulated the process of crude protein accumulation in seeds.

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247-250 J. Lanauskas, N. Uselis, A. Valiuškaitė and P. Viškelis
Effect of foliar and soil applied fertilizers on strawberry healthiness, yield and berry quality
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Effect of foliar and soil applied fertilizers on strawberry healthiness, yield and berry quality

J. Lanauskas¹, N. Uselis², A. Valiuškaitė² and P. Viškelis²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: j.lanauskas@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: institutas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of foliar applied fertilizers (calcium nitrate, Kemira Ferticare 7–27–25, Phosfik 3–27–18 and Biokal 01) and calcium nitrate broadcasted to the soil on strawberries cv. ’Honeoye’ was investigated in 2004–2005 at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Strawberries were sprayed three times starting at full bloom in 8 day intervals. Calcium nitrate was applied to the soil in the rows during full bloom at the rate of 150 kg ha-1. Control plants were not fertilized. Ecological preparation Biokal 01 decreased amount of mite–infested strawberry plants by 9 percent units, and the incidence of leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earlianum (Ellis & Everh) Wolf) by 8 percent units in comparison with the control. Fertilizers had no effect on white leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.) Lind) infection. Foliar applied fertilizers had no positive effect on strawberry yield, average berry weight and berry firmness. Calcium nitrate applied to the soil decreased berry firmness. Biokal 01 and foliar applied calcium nitrate increased berry sucrose content. Fertilizers did not influence concentration of soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid, nitrates and titratable acids.

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197–209 A. Makaraviciute
Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties
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Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties

A. Makaraviciute

Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Dvaro 6, N. Elmininkai, Anykš?iai district, LT-4930, Lithuania; e-mail: elmininkai@anyksciai.omnitel.net

Abstract:

The effect of different fertilizers on potato tuber yield and its quality was investigated at the Elmininkai Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1997-1999. Potatoes of 10 varieties belonging to different maturity groups were grown on plots with different fertilization. The following potato varieties were investigated: the extra early ‘Venta’ and ‘Ukama’, the early ‘Voke’, the medium early ‘Mirta’ and ‘Karolin’, the medium late ‘Hertha’, ‘Saturna’ and ‘Agria’, and the late ‘Aistes’ and ‘Speci’.
It was established that different fertilizers, varietal properties and meteorological conditions during the potato vegetation period significantly influenced the yield and  quality of different potato varieties. The highest potato tuber yields (20.1–29.6 t ha-1) of all the tested varieties were harvested when one-component and complex mineral fertilizers with microelements had been applied, the lowest (14.6–21.7 t ha-1) when manure (60 t ha-1) had been used in spring. The highest starch and dry matter content had potatoes of the following varieties: the early ‘Voke’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively), the medium early ‘Karolin’ (up to 15.6% and 21.8%, respectively), the medium late ‘Saturna’ (up to 17.4% and 23.7%, respectively) and the late ‘Speci’ (up to 16.3% and 22.6%, respectively). The 1998 vegetation period was the most favourable for potato tuber yield, and the 1997 vegetation period for the accumulation of starch and dry matter. The vegetation period of 1999 was the most unfavourable both for potato tuber yield and the accumulation of starch and dry matter.

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