Fusarium fungi as potential toxicants on cereals and grain feed grown in Estonia during 1973–2001
¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 4, Saku, 75501 Harjumaa, Estonia; e–mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
²Estonian Control Centre of Plant Production, Teaduse 4/6, Saku, 75501 Harjumaa, Estonia; e-mail: email@example.com
This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of the genus Fusarium Link ex Fr. on cereal grain grown in Estonia and grain feeds made of the named cereal grain. Within the period of 1973–1981, occurrence of genus Fusarium was identified in 1,065 grain seed samples, and, within 1997–2001, in 29 samples of grain feed.Fusarium sp. was identified in 67–100% of the studied wheat samples, and, depending on the year, infection was detected in 13–67% of the seeds. In the case of rye,Fusarium species were identified in 38–86% of the studied samples and infection was found in 8–23% of the seeds, with barley the figures were 45–97% and 14–46%; and oats 55–100% and 15–65%, respectively.
The study indicated that the infection spread more intensively when corn was lodged, as a result of rainy autumn and late harvest. 16 species and 4 varieties of Fusariumwere found on seeds. According to the survey (in 707 samples), the most common species were the following: F. avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc., F. poae (Pk.) Wr., F. oxysporum(Schlecht) Snyd. et Hans., F. ventricosum App. et Wr., F. sporotrichioides Sherb. var. minus Wr., F. verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg and F. culmorum (W.G.Sm) Sacc. Mycotoxin producing species F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. oxysporum, F. verticilliodes, F. sambucinum Fuck., F. equiseti (Corda) Sacc. and F. culmorumwere detected in 50–60% of the studied samples. As a result of the studies on domestic grain feed (29 samples) carried out within 1997–2001, Fusarium spp. was found in 51.7% of the samples, whereas Fusarium toxins were detected in seven samples out of nine. 31.3% of Fusarium isolates were highly toxic, and 37.5% were toxic on Bacillus stearothermophilus. One isolate of F. verticillioides, one of F. culmorum, F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc. and two of F. sp. proved to be highly toxic.