Tag Archives: goat milk

1562-1572 A. Chechetkina, N. Iakovchenko and L. Zabodalova
The technology of soft cheese with a vegetable component
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The technology of soft cheese with a vegetable component

A. Chechetkina*, N. Iakovchenko and L. Zabodalova

ITMO University, St. Lomonosova 9, RU 191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: Aleksandra.chechetkina@mail.ru

Abstract:

In products with complex composition milk and vegetable raw materials are used in different combinations, which allow to give them certain functional properties. Increasing the production of biologically wholesome products is a highly topical issue. One of the possible solutions of the problem is combining milk basis with vegetable raw material. Studies have been conducted on the development of soft cheeses from goat’s milk with chickpea flour. The aim of this research is to study the properties, consumer value and possibility of creation of soft cheese formulation with chickpea flour. In this field of study, an extruded chickpea flour is an innovative additive that had never been used before. Optimal proportion of ingredients was determined by nutritional, biological and energy value under the limitations arising from structural and parametrical models of adequate nutrition. The optimal concentration of bean filler in cheese mass that allows for the insignificant change in qualitative indicators of lacto–vegetarian product (taste, smell, consistency and color) was determined. During the experiments an effective fracture of bean component was selected and qualitative indicators of the developed soft cheese were determined. The paper gives scientific substantiation for the effectiveness of manufacture of soft goat cheese with chickpea flour.

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1407–1418 T. Michlová, A. Hejtmánková, H. Dragounová and Š. Horníčková
The content of minerals in milk of small ruminants
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The content of minerals in milk of small ruminants

T. Michlová¹*, A. Hejtmánková¹, H. Dragounová² and Š. Horníčková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of this study was to determine and compare the content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in sheep and goat milk of different breeds from 9 farms in the Czech Republic (herds of 18–330 goat´s heads and 30–380 sheep heads). Pool samples of milk were collected once a month (April – September) during lactation in the years 2011–2013. The content of minerals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Most of the analyses of the contents of Cd and Pb were below the limit of detection. Other determined values of these two contaminants were lower than maximal tolerable amount according to previously valid regulation No. 298/1997 Sb of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic given for cow's milk. The contents of each element in the whole of the reference period were in a relatively wide range. Determined levels of Ca, Mg, K, Na, Zn and Cu in goat milk related to the weight of lyophilized milk powder varied from 1.40–8.08 g kg-1, 0.16–1.42 g kg-1, 8.16–31.10 g kg-1, 0.72–5.43 g kg-1, 7.59–44.10 mg kg-1, and 0.21–1.46 mg kg-1 respectively. Determined levels of Ca, Mg, K, Na, Zn and Cu in sheep milk varied from 1.69–9.13 g kg-1, 0.21–1.36 g kg-1, 3.53–11.90 g kg-1, 0.65–5.05 g kg-1, 13.70–34.30 mg kg-1, and 0.15–2.10 mg kg-1 respectively. Statistically higher (P < 0.05) content of potassium was determined in goat milk in comparison with sheep milk. The contents of all followed minerals in milk samples from each farm collected during the lactation period were very variable, but it is not possible to find any direct relationship between the content of studied elements and the date of sampling. It was found that the year has statistically significant influence especially on the content of Ca and Mg in milk of small ruminants.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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