Tag Archives: grain

1299–1305 D. Herak
Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)
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Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)

D. Herak

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic e-mail: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 With aid of the image analysis using trio ocular microscope the dimensions, circumferences and areas in two perpendicular planes of Teff seeds were measured and based on this information the new ellipsoid model of the seed’s shape was derived and compared with measured values. From statistical analysis implies that this model on probability 0.95 is significantly identical with measured values of the Teff seeds. Determined model can help more accurately set up and developed accurate mathematical model for describing mechanical behaviour of individual seeds as well as bulk seeds.

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433-438 A. M. Méndez, D. Castillo , A. del Pozo, I. Matus, R. Morcuende
Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment
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Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment

A. M. Méndez¹, D. Castillo² ³, A. del Pozo², I. Matus³, R. Morcuende¹

¹Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
²Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile
³Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias CRI-Quilamapu, Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the global food supply and it is becoming an increasingly severe problem in many regions of the world, mainly in Mediterranean areas and/or climates. This study investigates the effect of drought on the stem soluble carbohydrate content and its role in grain filling in different barley genotypes –four recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) and the recurrent parent cv. Harrington, which had been growing in two contrasting Mediterranean environments in central Chile. At anthesis, drought stress increased the stem glucose and fructose contents in lines 76 and 78 and fructans in all the genotypes. At maturity, in non-stressed plants the soluble carbohydrate content in the stem decreased, suggesting a mobilization of carbohydrates from the stem into the grain. Drought increased the stem content of fructose, sucrose and fructans in all genotypes. The accumulation of fructans was higher in RCSLs as compared to Harrington, providing evidence that the introgression of the wild ancestor (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) into cv. Harrington increases the terminal drought tolerance of barley. Line 89 showed the maximal content of fructans and it could be considered as the most tolerant to terminal drought of all RCSLs. However, this genotype showed the lowest grain weight and yield, indicating that is the most susceptible line of those referred to as grain yield.

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55-65 G. Pupinis
Grain drying by use of changeable air flow method
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Grain drying by use of changeable air flow method

G. Pupinis

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian University of Agriculture Raudondvaris,LT-51132 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: pupinis@mei.lt

Abstract:

The article describes a new energy saving method for drying grain. The idea of the method is that once moisture released from grain decreases, air discharge going through the grain is reduced as well. ´Roland´ variety of barley with 25% and 30% moisture content was used in the trial. It was dried with a changeable air discharge in order to maintain absorption qualities. After the drying process has begun, air flow to the grain is reduced in the process of drying as the relative moisture content of air passing through decreases. It has been established that the optimum initial air discharge is 800 m3 (t h)-1. During grain drying air discharge is reduced and it can be described by equation0,0114969.85xye−=, R2 = 0.8088.The scheme for a designed and manufactured trial device is presented. Intensity of airdischarge and dynamics of moisture absorption in a layer of dried grain have been established.

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195–205 H. Lõiveke, E. Ilumäe and H. Laitamm
Microfungi in grain and grain feeds and their potential toxicity
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Microfungi in grain and grain feeds and their potential toxicity

H. Lõiveke¹, E. Ilumäe¹ and H. Laitamm²

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, 75501, Harjumaa, Estonia;
e-mail: heino.loiveke@mail.ee; ene.ilumae@mail.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, Saku, 75501, Harjumaa, Estonia;
e-mail: helgi.laitamm@pmk.agri.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the research work was to study microfungi in grain (spring and winter wheat) and grain feeds of domestic origin and determine their composition with special attention on toxigenic and allergenic species.
The total number of fungi was estimated on wort agar or on the nutrient substratum of Czapek. The species and number of Fusarium were defined on the selective medium of Nash & Snyder. For a mycological survey of grain samples, the moist chamber method was used in the year of 1992. The fungi were determined by microscopy, using corresponding nominators (Raper et al., 1949; Raper et al., 1965; Arx, 1970; Bilai et al., 1988). The classification of Fusarium has been made according to Gerlach & Nirenberg (1982). The toxicity of isolated fungi was defined by means of a test organism, Bacillus stearothermophilus (Watson & Lindsay, 1982). Spring wheat of the years 1992, 1993, 1994 and winter wheat of the years 1992, 2002 and 2003, and spoilt grain feeds of the years 1997–2002 were investigated.
About half of the identified 63 fungi species are either potentially toxigenic or allergenic. In 1992–1994; on average Alternaria spp. occurred on 72% of spring wheat seeds and on 45% of winter wheat seeds, Cladosporium spp. on 20% and 8% of the seeds, Aspergillus spp. on 6% and 9% of the seeds, Verticillium spp. on 13% and 23% of the seeds, Fusarium spp. on 23% and 64% of the seeds, respectively. Penicillium spp. was represented very differently: in 1992 and 1994 on 10%, in 1993 on 80–90% of the seeds. The species known as toxicants were also from the genera Chaetomium, Cochliobolus, Gliocladium, Mortierella, Mucor, Rhizopus, Stachybotrys, and Trichothecium. In spoilt grain feeds the potential toxicants were represented from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, andTrichothecium. Allergenic species were represented by the genera Epicoccum, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Ulocladium. The toxicity of fungi isolated from grain, on the basis of the growth inhibition zone of B. stearothermophilus, was 0–7 mm, whereas on fungi isolated from spoilt feeds it was 0–18 mm. The most toxic fungi werePenicillium cyclopium, Penicillium sp., Trichothecium roseum, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Rhizopus nigricans, and Acremonium sp.

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