Tag Archives: green manure

011–023 A. Baghdadi, M. Balazadeh, A. Kashani, F. Golzardi, M. Gholamhoseini and M. Mehrnia
Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn
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Effect of pre-sowing and nitrogen application on forage quality of silage corn

A. Baghdadi¹, M. Balazadeh¹, A. Kashani¹, F. Golzardi², M. Gholamhoseini²* and M. Mehrnia¹

¹Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
²Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension
Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
*Correspondence: mgholamhoseini@spii.ir

Abstract:

In order to determine the best pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen rates on forage
quality traits in silage corn (SC 704), a field experiment was conducted in a split plot based on a
randomized complete block design (RCBD), with four replications during 2013–14 growing
season in Karaj. Main plots consisted of four pre-sowing treatments (Black fallow, Farmyard
manure and 2 green manure treatments including pre-sowing treatment of perko PVH and presowing
treatment of buko) and sub-plots included three rates of nitrogen (120, 240 and
360 kg ha−1, utilized urea source). Results showed that the effect of pre-sowing treatments on
DMD, NDF and forage yield was significant (P ≤ 0.01), so that in all traits, perko PVH and buko
treatments were the best ones to compare with black fallow and farmyard manure. Moreover,
different nitrogen levels had significant (P ≤ 0.01) effect on dry matter digestibility (DMD),
neutrals detergent fiber (NDF) and forage yield, so that with the increasing rate of nitrogen, these
traits increased. The interaction effect of pre-sowing treatments and nitrogen levels on water
soluble carbohydrates (WSC), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and total ash was
significant (P ≤ 0.01). In general, results showed that the suitable component is perko PVH
treatment by using 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen fertilizer.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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394-399 L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene
The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture
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The changes of mineral nitrogen content in clay loam Cambisol in sustainable and organic agriculture

L. Masilionyte and S. Maiksteniene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis Experimental StationJoniskelis, Pasvalys district, Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Experiments were conducted in the Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2006–2008 on the clay loam Gleyic Cambisol. The aim of the research – to estimate changes of amount of mineral nitrogen in several humus content soils under influence of fertilization systems with a catch crop of green manure – combinations of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus L.), narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH.) in sustainable and organic farming systems. Experiments showed that in late autumn, before incorporation of different catch crops biomass, the lowest amount of mineral nitrogen – 6.21-6.31 mg kg-1 in the soil layer of 0–40 cm was found in the organic farming system. In the sustainable farming system growing white mustard and using nitrogen at low rates – N30 for more intensive straw mineralization, the amount of mineral nitrogen in the soil was significantly – 17.0-15.2% – higher. The highest content of mineral nitrogen – 8.04 mg kg-1 in the soil was found in the fields without catch crops, where N30 was also applied for straw mineralization.

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517-521 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu, A. Astover and A. Makke
Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop
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Phytomass formation and carbon amount returned to soil depending on green manure crop

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu², A. Astover² and A. Makke¹

¹ Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2004–2006 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. Various green manures and ensuing cereals were studied in respect of phytomass formation and quantity of C returned to soil. The highest amount of organic matter was applied by red clover (8.91 Mg ha–1) and lucerne (8.41 Mg ha–1), and the lowest by unfertilized barley. The total phytomass of pure sowings of barley ranged, depending on the nitrogen fertilizer norm, from 6.55 to 11.54 Mg of dry matter per hectare, of which the grain yield constituted 37.3–43.2%. Sowings of lucerne and red clover added 3.44–3.82 Mg C ha–1 to soil, while sowing of bird’s-foot trefoil supplemented 1.99 Mg C ha–1. Preceding crop determined the phytomass of ensuing crops and the amount of C returned to soil. The amount of C of the oats grown after clover was 5.32 Mg C ha–1, whereas 3.28 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil. Lucerne pure sowing resulted in 3.17 Mg C ha–1 returned to soil. When oats were preceded by barley (without manure), 2.53 Mg C ha–1 was returned to soil.

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59-71 R. Skuodienė and R. Nekrošienė
Impact of perennial legumes and timothy as green manure on productivity of Secale cereale L. and x Triticosecale Wittm and on occurrence of cereal diseases
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Impact of perennial legumes and timothy as green manure on productivity of Secale cereale L. and x Triticosecale Wittm and on occurrence of cereal diseases

R. Skuodienė¹ and R. Nekrošienė²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vezaiciai Branch,Vezaiciai, Gargzdų 29, LT-96216 Klaipeda distr. Lithuania;e-mail: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt
²Botanical Garden of Klaipeda University,Kretingos 92, LT-92327 Klaipeda, Lithuania; e-mail: bot.sodas@one.lt

Abstract:

In 2002–2005 experiments were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Vėžaičiai Branch (West Lithuania) on a podzolized gleyic soil to study 1) the ecological significance of perennial legumes and timothy used as green manure for the biological properties of triticale and rye, and 2) on diseases affecting these cereals. Our experimental evidence suggests that residues of the perennial grasses tested and ploughed-in aftermath contributed different contents of nitrogen to the soil. The highest content of nitrogen (185.8 kg ha-1) and other nutrients (P2O5, K2O) was contributed to the soil with the addition ofred clover residues and aftermath. However, when triticale and rye were grown after white clover as a preceding crop (1st crop for forage, aftermath ploughed in), the highest grain yield (on average 3.13 t ha-1 of triticale and 3.82 t ha-1 of rye) was obtained, which was by 0.34 and 0.28 t ha-1 higher compared to grain yield following similarly managed red clover. It was determined that some yield-forming indicators of cereal, such as plant height, ear length, number of grains per ear were higher for white clover rather than for red clover or timothy. The choice of preceding crop had no significant effect on differences in protein content in the winter cereal grain. However, different growing conditions of winter cereals, i.e. different preceding crops, had a significant effect on the occurrence of scald, brown rust and septoria.

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87–97 S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene
Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil
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Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil

S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-5240 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; tel.fax.: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sown lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), vetch and oat mixture (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) and green material of these legume crops used as green manure on the build up of biological N variation of soil properties and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated on Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can), according to the texture – clay loam on silty clay. Experiments were carried out at the Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1996–2000. It was revealed that lucerne and clover left the highest content of plant residues in the soil (13.7 t ha-1 and 9.2 t ha-1 of dry matter, respectively) which was 2.7 and 1.8 times more as compared to annual vetch and oat mixture. These perennial plants also determined accumulation of the highest content of biological N in roots and residues. According to N content applied with green manure, only lucerne aftermath was comparable to farmyard manure. Lucerne determined accumulation of the highest contents of total nitrogen (0.138%), humus (2.18%) and available phosphorus and potassium (130 and 279 mg kg-1 of soil, respectively) in the soil. Analysis of humus composition showed that its content in clay loam soil was rather stable, however, a slightly higher content of mobile humic acids was found after lucerne as a preceding crop when green manure or farmyard manure had been applied. When winter wheat was grown after lucerne as a preceding crop, the highest grain yield (on average 5.58 t ha-1) was obtained, which was 18.5 and 28.3% higher than that after clover or vetch and oat mixture. Protein content in winter wheat grain was to a greater extent determined by legume crops rather than organic manure.

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