Tag Archives: growth

543-552 D. Lazdiņa, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons
The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia
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The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia

D. Lazdiņa*, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons

Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, 111 Rigas str., LV2169 Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Hybrid aspen and willows are the fastest growing tree species used for biomass production in short rotation coppice (SRC) cultures in Latvia. Poplars are suitable for cultivation in Latvia, however, their potential for this purpose as SRC in Latvia and North Eastern Europe has not yet been investigated. There is an increasing interest in using poplar clones to establish short rotation plantations. The aim of this study is to analyse the productivity of the Italian poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 and their potential use for biomass production, as well as the effect of fertilization on the development and survival of trees. The experimental plot consisted of drained mineral soil with the initial spacing of trees ranging from 9,000 to 10,000 trees ha-1 (1.5 m x 0.7–0.5 m). Weed management has been carried out on the plantation once per season every year. Four management methods were tested – control (no fertilization), fertilization with waste water sludge 10 t DM ha-1, wood ash 6 t ha-1, mineral fertilizer NPK (12:5:14) 100 kg ha-1. In the second year, the height of the trees ranged from 0.2 to 2.64 m, on average 1.12 ± 0.005 m. The annual increments during the third year ranged from 0.01–2.14 m, on average 0.787 ± 0.004 m. At the end of the third season, the tree diameters at breast height of all clones varied greatly from 0.36 cm to 4.4 cm. The trees reached average diameters of 1.48 ± 0.007 cm; the tree heights ranged from 0.36 m to 4.24 m and were 1.99 ± 0.01 m, on average at the end of the third season. Depending on the clone and treatment, the amount of fresh biomass was 1.57–10.67 t ha-1(planting density 10,000 trees), and one fifth of the biomass, on average, was located in branches. Sewage sludge fertilizer contributed to the development of the micropatogen Venturia sp., resulting in lower initial retention and delayed development. Mineral fertilizers were the most effective. No animal and frost damages were observed. Overall, the results indicate a significant potential for us for using poplar for bioenergy production, with the optimal rotation age for bioenergy production being more than 3 years.

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743-748 T. Univer, D. Kviklys, J. Lepsis and N. Univer
Early performance of ‘Auksis’ apple trees on dwarfing rootstocks in the Baltic region
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Early performance of ‘Auksis’ apple trees on dwarfing rootstocks in the Baltic region

T. Univer¹, D. Kviklys², J. Lepsis³ and N. Univer¹

¹Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof the Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia; e-mail: toivo.univer@emu.ee
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: d.kviklys@lsdi.lt
³Pure Horticultural Research Station, Abavas 2, Pure, LV-3124, Latvia;e-mail: janis.lepsis@puresdis.lv

Abstract:

‘Auksis’ apple trees on P22, P59, P61, P62, P66, P67, PB-4, Pure 1, B.9, B.396, M.9 and M.26 rootstocks were planted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2005. After five growing season, the strongest growth and the highest yield were recorded in Lithuania. The growth rate of trees on B.396, B.9, P62, P67, P66 and Pure 1 was similar to those of trees M.9. The rootstocks P22, P59 and PB-4 appeared to be more dwarfing than M.9. The highest cumulative yield of ‘Auksis’ was obtained from trees grafted on M.9, M.26, P62 and P67. The least productive were trees on PB-4 rootstock at all the places. Effects of rootstock on fruit weight were modest. Rootstock and location interaction was recorded for P61 in growth vigour control, and P22 and Pure 1 in cumulative yield.

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51-58 R. Sestras, E. Tamas, D. Pamfil, L. Mihalte,A. Sestras, L. Chis and C. Qin
The influence of the genotype upon the in vitro and in vivo growth of greenhouse carnations
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The influence of the genotype upon the in vitro and in vivo growth of greenhouse carnations

R. Sestras¹, E. Tamas¹, D. Pamfil¹, L. Mihalte¹,A. Sestras², L. Chis² and C. Qin³

¹University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5Manastur St., 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail: rsestras@usamvcluj.ro
²Horticultural Research Station, 3-5 Horticultorilor St., Cluj-Napoca, Romania
³School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200436, China

Abstract:

Carnations are familiar, widespread, and are among the most popular cut flowers. There is great diversity of greenhouse cultivars belonging to Dianthus caryophyllus L, habitually multiplied through cuttings or micro-propagation. In order to establish whether or not there is a connection between the vigour of the plants technically mature from the greenhouse and their in vitro growth, several traits of greenhouse carnation, grown both in vivo and in vitro were analysed in five cultivars (Polka, Tanga, Dark Tempo, Delphi and Indios). The influence of the genotype upon the vigour of the plants and upon the characteristics of the greenhouse flowers, as well as upon some features of the in vitro growth of the plantlets, was significant. The variability under in vivo conditions ranged from 5.0 to 17.8%, while the characteristics analysed in vitro showed a large span of variability values (s% = 7.9–51.0). Overall, the heritability showed high values for the analysed characteristics, both under in vivo (H2 = 0.660–0.949) and in vitro (H2 = 0.502–0.946) conditions. No statistically ensured correlations were recorded between the plant growth under in vivo conditions and of those with the same genotype under in vitro conditions; therefore the greater vigour of some genotypes from the greenhouse did not imply their more accentuated growth in vitro. The cultivars conspicuous for their superior characteristics will be used as genitors within the improvement programmes and also recommended to be tested for inclusion in the Official Catalogue of Plants.

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155-158 L. Buskienė, N. Uselis and J. Lanauskas
Possibilities of weed control with herbicide Basta 150 SL in a young apple tree orchard
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Possibilities of weed control with herbicide Basta 150 SL in a young apple tree orchard

L. Buskienė¹, N. Uselis² and J. Lanauskas²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: l.buskiene@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: institutas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of herbicide Basta 150 SL (a.i. ammonium glufosinate) on weed control in a 3–4 year–old apple tree orchard was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2004–2005. Basta 150 SL was applied at the rates 3.0 l ha-1 and 6.0 l ha-1, standard herbicide Roundup 360 SL – at the rate 3.0 l ha-1. Herbicides were applied twice over the growing season: the first application, until beginning of flowering, the second , when weeds had grown to 10–15 cm. Control plots were not treated with herbicides. Apple tree growth, weed species composition, weed number and weed fresh weight were measured.The most effective for weed control were 6.0 l ha-1 of Basta 150 SL and 3.0 l ha-1 ofRoundup 360 SL. They killed respectively 80.4–95.3% and 84.7–87.7% of weeds. Dandelions, (Taraxacum officinale L.), the prevailing weeds , were killed successfully with both herbicides. The lowest weed fresh weight was after 6.0 l ha-1 of Basta 150 SL application – 3.2%. Phytotoxic effect of herbicide Basta 150 SL on apple trees was not observed. When herbicides were applied apple tree shoot length increased by 1.4–1.9 times. Weed fresh weight had higher impact on shoot length than the total number of weeds.

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207–215 L. Miliuviene, L. Novickiene, V. Gaveliene, I. Brazauskiene and L. Pakalniškyte
Possibilities to use growth regulators in winter oilseed rape growing technology
1. The effect of retardant analogues on oilseed rape growth

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Possibilities to use growth regulators in winter oilseed rape growing technology
1. The effect of retardant analogues on oilseed rape growth

L. Miliuviene¹, L. Novickiene¹, V. Gaveliene¹, I. Brazauskiene² and L. Pakalniškyte¹

¹Institute of Botany, Žaliuju ežeru 49, Lithuania; e-mail: leonida@botanika.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Dotnuva - Akademia, Lithuania

Abstract:

The effect of growth regulators – derivatives of the diethylamine chloride 3-DEC and morpholinium chloride 17-DMC – on the growth and productivity of the winter oilseed rape ‘Kasimir F1’ was studied.
3-DEC and 17-DMC have been found to exert positive effect on the growth and development of the oilseed rape ‘Kasimir F1’ in autumn: it induced the growth of root collum, accumulation of monosaccharides in its tissues, leaf and root system formation, enhanced the endurance of this culture to wintering. Under the effect of these compounds applied in spring, stem growth was retarded and stem diameter as well as stem primary cortex ring and stele width increased, resulting in enhanced endurance to lodging. Thus, the compounds 3-DEC and 17-DMC, by modifying oilseed rape growth in autumn and influencing oilseed rape growth in spring, influenced the development of productivity elements. The extra seed yield under the effect of 3-DEC (250 g ha-1) and 17-DMC (500 g ha-1) in autumn was 350 and 455 kg ha-1, and in spring 496 and 406 kg ha-1, the control yield being 2,300 kg ha-1.

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37–44 H. Jänes and A. Pae
First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial
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First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial

H. Jänes¹ and A. Pae²

¹Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University, 69104 Karksi-Nuia, Viljandimaa, Estonia; e-mail: heljo11@hot.ee
²Department of Horticulture of the Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

For many years, Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. seedlings of high vigour have been the most widespread seedling rootstock in Estonia. Plum growers are interested in less vigorous plum rootstocks which are productive with good fruit quality, easily harvested, early fruiting and less expensive to manage. In a new experiment (a collaborative project together with Latvian, Lithuanian and Byelorussian scientists), two plum cultivars, Queen Victoria and Kubanskaya Kometa, grafted onto 16 different rootstocks:Prunus Ackermann, Prunus Brompton, Prunus Brompton S, Prunus G 5–22, Prunus marianna GF 8–1, Prunus St. Julien A, Prunus St. Julien GF 655/2, Prunus St. Julien INRA 2, Prunus St. Julien Noir, Prunus St. Julien d’Orleans, Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill, Prunus Pixy, Prunus domestica Wangenheims, Prunus cerasifera ‘Hamyra’, P. cerasifera (local) and P. cerasifera myrobalana, were planted in an orchard in spring 2001. The objectives of these trials were to give an assessment of newly introduced plum rootstocks and to find out their compatibility with the studied plum cultivars. According to the results obtained in the first growing season, 45 (11.7%) of the 384 trees planted in 2001 died. The lowest tree dimensions both of ‘Queen Victoria’ and ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ were noted on Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill. Trees of ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on different rootstocks started to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting (except P. cerasifera Hamyra). ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ trees grown on Prunus St. Julien INRA 2 and Prunus St. Julien Noir produced significantly better first yield than on control rootstocks. ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on Prunus St. Julien A and Prunus Pixy gave the largest fruits (41 g and 40.5 g, respectively).

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