The quality evaluation of different soil tillage technologies
Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: email@example.com Abstract: Soil tillage technologies are one of the most important processes having huge influence on sowing, germination, growing and yield of cultivated crops. At the same time soil tillage is one of the most consuming processes of crop production. There are lots of differences in conventional and other soil tillage technologies. Substitution of the deep cultivation based on ploughing with the technologies of shallow tillage or no tillage allows the reduction of the negative impact on the environment and decreasing of labour and energy cost for soil tillage. Described below is a field experiment based on different soil tillage technologies and its influence on soil condition. Among main research objectives are impact of different intensity soil tillage on the main physic-mechanical properties of soil and overall assessment of the technologies in terms of environmental protection. To evaluate the reliability of the achieved results the data was assessed by statistical analysis methods, using ‘Statistica’ software. In a field experiment there were evaluated two kinds of tillers typically used in conservation soil tillage technologies. Experiment was focused on working quality and influence of working tolls on soil properties. Key words: soil tillage, conservation tillage, crop residue, erosion.INTRODUCTION
Ways of farming change notably the structure of soils and conditions for cropsgrowing. Structure is changed by all external pressure mechanization agents, the way of fertilization, weather conditions and last but not least a very significant influence also have different way soil tillage systems, which was confirmed in study of Powers & Skidmore (1984) and Lhotsky (2000). The main goal of conservation soil tillage systems is restriction of the soil textures destruction, elimination of soil compaction and protection the soil against erosion. Minimum soil tillage includes above all summary proceedings progress cultivation (Hůla et al., 2002), that is based on jointing or reduction of the number of single operations, reduction of depth or intensity of tillage processes and soil could be tilled only in zone treatment or only in a certain soil profile layer.The constant addition of crop residues leads to an increase in the organic mattercontent of the soil. In the beginning this is limited to the top layer of the soil, but with time this will extend to deeper soil layers. Organic matter plays an important role in the soil: fertilizer use efficiency, water holding capacity, soil aggregation, rooting environment and nutrient retention, which all depend on organic matter (Johnson, 1988). Residues on the soil surface reduce the splash-effect of the raindrops, and once the energy of the raindrops has dissipated the drops proceed to the soil without any
harmful effect. This results in higher infiltration and reduced runoff, leading to less erosion. The residues also form a physical barrier that reduces the speed of water and wind over the surface. Reduction of wind speed reduces evaporation of soil moisture.