Tag Archives: heavy metals

781-795 P. Felix-Henningsen, T. Urushadze, D. Steffens, B. Kalandadze, E. Narimanidze
Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia
Abstract |
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Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia

P. Felix-Henningsen¹, T. Urushadze², D. Steffens³, B. Kalandadze², E. Narimanidze⁴

¹Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University Giessen,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen, e-mail: Peter.Felix-H@umwelt.unigiessen.de
²Tbilisi State University, Ilia Chavchavadze Ave.3, 0128, Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail:
t_urushadze@yahoo.com; kalandabeso@gmx.net
³Institute of Plant Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26,
35392 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: Diedrich.Steffens@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
⁴Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany e-mail:
nareli@gmx.net

Abstract:

In the middle and lower reaches of the Mashavera valley in SE Georgia, most of the
irrigated soils under different agricultural land use display a strong enrichment of heavy metals
(HM) that can be traced back to irrigation with water polluted by mining wastes contributed
over a period of several decades. The concentrations of total amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd increase
with intensity of land use and amount of irrigation in the following sequence: arable fields < occasionally submerged meadows < vegetable gardens < wine gardens and orchards with mixed cropping of vegetables. A high proportion of HM belongs to the supply fraction, which displays the (un-)specifically adsorbed HM, dissolvable in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The narrow correlation of this fraction with the mobile and plant-available fraction of HM indicates a high long-term risk potential for the food chain. Due to the recent high adsorption capacity of the soils for HM, only a small amount of HM in the mobile fraction was found with proportions less than 1 % of the total amounts for Cu and Zn, and a maximum of 1.5 % for Cd. On the other hand, initial investigations of cereals and vegetable species indicate a high uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd, which for Cu and Cd causes concentrations in plants exceeding the tolerance thresholds for plants, animals and human beings. A field experiment established the strong uptake of heavy metals by spinach, which was unexpected due to the weakly alkaline pH as well as the high contents of clay and organic matter of the soils. This result indicates the high risk of soil pollution by heavy metals for the food chain and consumers.

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131–137 B. Kalandadze
Influence of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise on soil types in adjoining areas
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Influence of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise on soil types in adjoining areas

B. Kalandadze

Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze ave. 1, 0128 Tbilisi, Georgia; e-mail: kalandabeso@gmx.net

Abstract:

Anthropogenic influence on surroundings has induced anthropogenic or technogenic biogeochemical anomalies, where sharp a increase in the content of chemical elements has been  established. Due to technogenic contamination, the amount of microelements in soils comes close to the level of macroelements that negatively affect plants, soil qualities and biota.
Appearance of technogenic biogeochemical anomalies depends on such activities as mining and manufacturing, exploitation of mines, metallurgical and chemical industries, which,  through the air and sewage, contaminate soils, the atmosphere, storage pools, the vegetational cover and other components of nature. The extent of technogenic pollution depends on industrial capacities of contaminating enterprises, the time of their exploitation and the working effectiveness of purifying constructions.
Regions considerably contaminated with chemical elements have been found to cover the area within a radius of 10–15 km, whereas in the direction of the dominating winds it has even reached 20–30 km. The zone is referred to as a technologically vastly polluted area where dominating chemical contaminants in  the soil threaten the entire soil biota as well as its agrophysical and agrochemical properties.
Our observations revealed that heavy metals from open-cast mines of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise were scattered by the prevailing winds throughout the environment within a radius of 8–12 km, and transferred, via irrigating waters, to agricultural arables dozens of kilometers away.

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