Tag Archives: humidity

228–235 J. Said, Š. Boďo, T. Saady, R. Gálik, S. Sardary and K. Abbas
Effect of broiler chickens living conditions on results of fattening
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Effect of broiler chickens living conditions on results of fattening

J. Said², Š. Boďo¹*, T. Saady², R. Gálik¹, S. Sardary² and K. Abbas²

¹Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949SK 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Agricultural College, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Karkuk St. Erbil, Kurdistan region,
Republic of Iraq
*Correspondence: stefan.bodo@uniag.sk

Abstract:

This work was aimed to monitor outdoor temperature, air humidity and internal microclimate conditions in broilers house during summer days, the temperature and the quality of bedding material as well as bird density. To evaluate the quality of litter we set three-tier system. If the litter dry and hard – value was ‘1’ if it was moist and supple – value was ‘2’, and if it was wet – value was ‘3’. The measurements were carried out on the 10th and 20th days of chickens age. Air temperature was monitored by (logger Comet R 3120) thermometer and for the measurement of the litter temperature used a non-contact thermometer (Raytek Raynger ST). To find out the birds density a thermocamera (Guide TP8S) for thermal imaging was used and subsequent shots are evaluated the birds stocking density. If the bird density high, value was ‘1’, if the bird density median, value was ‘2’ and if the density low, value was ‘3’. The hall was divided into 33 rectangular shapes. Results showed that the bedding quality averageed 1.2 on day 10 and 1.3 on day 20 of fattening (dry and hard). By comparing the P values and the significance level α (0.05), the value of 0.651 and 0.820 was found respectively for both age. No significance was detected between the litter temperature and the litter quality, also between bedding temperature and birds density. Intercomparison for bedding temperature and quality on days 10 and 20 a significant difference (0.000 < 0.05) was observed.

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117-124 L. Vent and A. Rybka
Influence of humidity on the quality of baled hops at grower
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Influence of humidity on the quality of baled hops at grower

L. Vent* and A. Rybka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 – Suchdol, Postcode 16521, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: lvent@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, in most of cases cured hops are pressed into square bales instead of roundbales. The specific weight of packaged hop is about 22% higher in the square bale and intensityof moistening of packaged hop is very important in this case. There is an increased risk ofdampening of hops in the square bale when the moistening intensity is too high. In the oppositecase is increased risk of destruction of hop cones due to low moistening intensity. The aim ofthis work was find out the influence of the intensity of moistening of hops before pressing intothe square bales on the development of humidity and quality of hops after pressing duringstorage at the grower. There were pressed square bales with humidity of hops from 9.2% to16.2%. The square bales with hop’s humidity 9–10% represented a dry variant, square baleswith hop’s humidity 11–12% represented an normal variant and square bales with hop’shumidity 13% and higher represented a wet variant. The square bales were stored on the firstfloor of the drying machine house at the grower. The range of storage temperature was from 7to 40 °C. All square bales were of the same condition. Humidity of the hops was monitoredduring 10 days. At the end of the measurement, there was carried out a laboratory analysis ofhops of all square bales. Samples were analysed for content of α – bitter acid and destruction ofhop cones. During storage, the humidity of wet variant dropped from 14.2 to 12.7% and thehumidity of dry variant increased from 9.37 to 11.1%. The destruction of hop cones was highestat dry variant (28%). On the contrary the lowest value was at normal variant (12.3%) and it isabout 43% less. However, the dependence of destruction of hop cones by humidity at asignificant level α = 0.05 has not been proven. There was no proven differences of content ofα – bitter acid between all three variants. The highest value 4.9% was at wet variant. We foundout a direct dependence of content of α – bitter acid on the humidity of hops in this case. Theresults of content of α – bitter and destruction of hop cones show that the best one was normalvariant with starting humidity from 11.2 to 11.6%.

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125-130 L. Vent and A. Rybka
Physical characteristics of picked hops during storage
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Physical characteristics of picked hops during storage

L. Vent* and A. Rybka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 – Suchdol, Postcode 16521, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: lvent@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

To prevent interrupting the process of drying or picking due to lack or surplus ofhops coming out of the picking line, hops, in most cases are placed in a storage container.. In acontainer, however, hops are layered, thus temperature and humidity increase owing to anincreased intensity of hop cones breathing and an insufficient airing, i.e. they mowburn. In theprocess of breathing a cone loses important substances which results in its deteriorated qualityand correspondingly in the poor quality of the final product. Our task was to observe the courseof hop temperature and humidity in a storage container and to compare it with the checkvariant, which was loosely spread hops outside the container. Data of temperature and humiditywere continually recorded by COMET D 3631 measuring equipment with N1ATG8/Cmeasuring probe by the Comet System company. Other analogue sensors to measure humidityand temperature were independently installed for checking. The monitoring was each timecarried out for 24 hours. During storage both the temperature and humidity of the hops in thecontainer increased substantially, with temperature values reaching up to 49 °C and humidityvalues 100%. The progress of temperatures was almost identical with all the measurements, thatis why we present only the average values. The highest temperature inside the container was inthe range of 39 °C to 49 °C with individual measurements. The temperatures of the checksamples were identical with the air temperature in the daytime with all the repeats. Themaximum temperature of the check samples ranged from 21 °C to 27 °C with eachmeasurement. In the same way as with the temperature, during the individual measurements thehumidity showed similar progress and the measurements did not differ from each other in anysubstantial way. The humidity level in the container rose up to the maximum value of 100%already two hours after the measurement had started and stayed like this until the end. Thehumidity of the hop check samples was 2.24% higher than the air humidity, which might beexplained by water vapour emission due to an increased intensity of hop cones breathing. Theconclusion we may draw here says that with an increasing volume and, probably above all,height of the stored hops layer, the influence of the surroundings on the conditions inside thecontainer will decline.

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319-328 S. Kalinauskaitė,, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskasand M. Ahlhaus
Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact
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Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact

S. Kalinauskaitė¹,*, A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹and M. Ahlhaus²

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r.LT-53361, Lithuania; *Correspondence: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative Energie Systeme (IRES),Zur Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany

Abstract:

Biomass is the major source of renewable energy, the use of which is very importantin energy, environment and economical aspects. Biomass enables the replacement of fossilfuels, the importance of biomass usage is related to global warming questions. Biomassmoisture content is one of the main factors affecting straw preparation for the usage cost.In this research the main focus is on straw and different biomass composition and how itinfluences the solid biofuels preparation for usage, paying attention to straw fraction, humidity,composition and finally how it influences the energy and environmental aspects. Testedsamples consist of different composition- raw straw, 100% yellow straw pellets, 100% greystraw pellets, 98% straw pellets with 2% additives, 50% straw and 50% hay pellets, 49% strawand 49% hay pellets with 2% additives, 100% hay pellets, 98% hay pellets with 2% additivesand additionally two samples of straw briquettes with different chop size – (20 mm) and(30 mm and 10 mm). This research pays attention to the main material characteristics –moisture value, ash content, HHV (higher heating value), pyrolysis coke. Research results willhelp to find the best biomass pellet and briquette composition for solid biofuel usage. Duringthe research it was found that the lowest moisture value was 98% hay pellets with 2% CaOadditive – 5.79%. Highest amount of ash value was found in 50% straw and 50% haycomposition pellets – 0.021 g. Highest amount of HHV were tested pellets which consisted of98% hay with 2% CaO additives. Highest amount of pyrolysis coke in organic and dry matterwere in 100% yellow straw tested samples.Achieved results will help to estimate material fraction, humidity and composition on biomasspreparation for conversion steps, following biomass usage energy and environmentrequirements. These research results will help to realise further tasks of agricultural biomassusage in practice.

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