Analysis of economical, social and environmental aspects of agroforestry systems of trees and perennial herbaceous plants
¹LLU Research Institute of Agriculture, Zemkop bas instituts 7, Skr veri, Latvia
2Latvia State Forest Research Institute Silava, Rigas 11, Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to determine the economic, social and environmental aspects, that promote choosing an agroforestry system and continuing agricultural production instead of simple afforestation of agricultural land. Material for the study was collected in an experimental demo field located in the central part of Latvia (56°41 N and 25°08 E) established in the spring of 2011, nearby Skr veri. Two legumes – fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) ‘Gale’, poor-alkoloid lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus L.) ‘Valfrids’ and two perennial grass cultivars – reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.) ‘Bamse’ and festulolium (x Festulolium pabulare) ‘Felina’ were sown between the tree rows and in monoculture on drained mineral soil. Four different fertilisation treatments for herbaceous plants – control (without fertiliser), mineral fertilisers, wastewater sludge and wood ash were used. Biomass, seed yield, agricultural management cost have been investigated since the establishment of experiment in 2011. Potential benefits from growing herbaceous plants for seed, biomass production and possible future income from tree wood and non-wood goods were calculated. Management cost of agroforestry system, plantation forest and traditional sowing were analyzed. The growth of herbaceous plants for seed production together with hybrid aspen in agroforestry system during a 5 year period has a positive balance with all types of fertilisers. The growth of herbaceous plants in a monoculture for biomass production in a 3 year period had a positive balance for all types of organic fertilisations at both cutting frequencies. Positive balance by applying mineral fertiliser was achieved only at two-cut cutting regime.