Tag Archives: irrigation

xxx H. Kirnak, I.S. Varol, H.A. Irik and H. Ozaktan
Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield
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Effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on chickpea yield

H. Kirnak¹, I.S. Varol²*, H.A. Irik² and H. Ozaktan³

¹University of Adnan Menderes, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, TR09010 Efeler, Aydın, Turkey
²University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biosystems Engineering, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
³University of Erciyes, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, TR38010 Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
*Correspondence: svarol@erciyes.edu.tr

Abstract:

This study was conducted over the experimental fields of Erciyes University in 2016 to investigate the effects of irrigations applied at different growth stages on chickpea yields. Experiments were conducted in randomized blocks design with 3 replications. There were 7 irrigation treatments as of I1: rainfed, I2: pre-bloom single irrigation, I3: single irrigation at the beginning of blooming, I4: single irrigation at 50% pod set, I5: two irrigations at 50% bloom and 50% pod-set, I6: two irrigations at pre-bloom and 50% pod-set, I7: full irrigation. The amount of applied irrigation water varied between 85.6–323 mm. Plant water consumptions varied between 262–569 mm. The greatest yield was obtained from I4 treatment with 273 kg da-1 and the lowest yield was obtained from I1 treatments with 146 kg da-1. It was concluded for chickpea cultivation under deficit water resources conditions that water deficits may be applied at different growth stages except for 50% pod-set period.

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781-795 P. Felix-Henningsen, T. Urushadze, D. Steffens, B. Kalandadze, E. Narimanidze
Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia
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Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia

P. Felix-Henningsen¹, T. Urushadze², D. Steffens³, B. Kalandadze², E. Narimanidze⁴

¹Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University Giessen,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen, e-mail: Peter.Felix-H@umwelt.unigiessen.de
²Tbilisi State University, Ilia Chavchavadze Ave.3, 0128, Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail:
t_urushadze@yahoo.com; kalandabeso@gmx.net
³Institute of Plant Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26,
35392 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: Diedrich.Steffens@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
⁴Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany e-mail:
nareli@gmx.net

Abstract:

In the middle and lower reaches of the Mashavera valley in SE Georgia, most of the
irrigated soils under different agricultural land use display a strong enrichment of heavy metals
(HM) that can be traced back to irrigation with water polluted by mining wastes contributed
over a period of several decades. The concentrations of total amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd increase
with intensity of land use and amount of irrigation in the following sequence: arable fields < occasionally submerged meadows < vegetable gardens < wine gardens and orchards with mixed cropping of vegetables. A high proportion of HM belongs to the supply fraction, which displays the (un-)specifically adsorbed HM, dissolvable in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The narrow correlation of this fraction with the mobile and plant-available fraction of HM indicates a high long-term risk potential for the food chain. Due to the recent high adsorption capacity of the soils for HM, only a small amount of HM in the mobile fraction was found with proportions less than 1 % of the total amounts for Cu and Zn, and a maximum of 1.5 % for Cd. On the other hand, initial investigations of cereals and vegetable species indicate a high uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd, which for Cu and Cd causes concentrations in plants exceeding the tolerance thresholds for plants, animals and human beings. A field experiment established the strong uptake of heavy metals by spinach, which was unexpected due to the weakly alkaline pH as well as the high contents of clay and organic matter of the soils. This result indicates the high risk of soil pollution by heavy metals for the food chain and consumers.

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827-836 K. Styla, A. Sawicka
Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation
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Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation

K. Styla¹, A. Sawicka²

¹Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences,
Poznań, Poland; e-mail: styla.katarzyna@gmail.com
²Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Life Science, Poznań, Poland

Abstract:

The effect of differentiated irrigation and fertilization on the number of microorganisms in the soil of an apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation was investigated. In the experiment, three irrigation levels were used: W0 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of atmospheric precipitations, W1 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of -0.03MPa of water potential, and W2 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of – 0.01MPA of water potential. Three fertilization combinations were used, i.e. 65 kg N/ha, 65 kg N/ha and 95 kg/ha K2O as well as 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha K2O. The highest number of fungi was noted in the 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were found of 65kg N/ha and 95kg/ha combination. A high number of fungi was observed in W0 combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were confirmed in the W1 and W2 combination. A high number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria and lower number of fungi in control object (Nowina and virgin soil) were recorded.

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113-124 K. Sty�a and A. Sawicka
Seasonal changes in biochemical and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree orchard after replantation
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Seasonal changes in biochemical and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree orchard after replantation

K. Sty�a¹ and A. Sawicka²

¹Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Science,
60-809 Pozna�, Poland; e-mail: styla.katarzyna@gmail.com
²Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Life Science, Pozna�, 60-656,
Pozna�, Poland

Abstract:

The objective of the studies included seasonal changes in the activity of enzymes, emission CO2 and microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation in an apple tree (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation. The most important activity of enzymes and the number of microorganisms were confirmed in the seasons of spring and autumn, while the lowest activity was observed in summer. The highest dehydrogenase activity was found in the last year (from 0.43 to 2.42 cm3 kg-1) and the lowest the in second year (from 0.19 to 0.58 cm3 kg-1). A high protease activity was recorded in the last year (from 1.25 to 12.08 mg kg-1) and low in the second year (from 1.65 to 3.47 mg kg-1). The highest urease activity was observed in the first year (from 1.17 to 6.42 �mol g-1) and the lowest in the second year (from 0.74 to 2.82 �mol g-1). High intensity of emission CO2 was noted in summer. The highest CO2 emission was found in the last year (from 29.32 to 46.86 mg kg-1) and the lowest in the second year (from 15.35 to 27.95 mg kg-1). The highest number of fungi was found in the soil of the combination without irrigation – W0. A high number of Azotobacter, actinomycetes, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, enzymes activity and CO2 emission almost always were observed in the soil in the irrigation combination – W1 or W2.

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