Tag Archives: lactose

1396–1406 T. Michlová, H. Dragounová, R. Seydlová and A. Hejtmánková
The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region
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The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region

T. Michlová¹*, H. Dragounová², R. Seydlová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of the study was to monitor milk yield and the hygienic and nutritional quality of milk of Saanen goats in the Moravian-Silesian region in Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected once a month during the lactation period. The average milk yield in the standardized lactation was 1,100 liters. The somatic cell count in pool samples ranged from 470 x 103 to 696 x 103. The total microorganism count ranged from 3.6 x 103 to 1.4 x 105. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was proven no more than in 6.3%. The highest values of all main components of milk were achieved within a relatively short time after kidding (April 2015). The average content of fat was 3.64  0.52 g 100 ml-1, 3.17  0.16 g 100 ml-1 of protein, 2.60  0.06 g 100 ml-1 of casein, 4.56  0.24 g 100 ml-1 of lactose, and 12.02  0.80 g 100 ml-1 of solids. Average content of vitamin A was 0.27  0.14 mg kg-1 and average content of vitamin E was 0.60  0.34 mg kg-1. Content of vitamin E increased almost continuously during the lactation, and the content of vitamin A was significantly higher at the end of lactation. In lyophilized milk powder the average trace metal contents were 7.76  0.92 g kg-1 Ca, 1.62  0.26 g kg-1 Mg, 15.3  1.43 g kg-1 K, 789  111 mg kg-1 Na, 23.2  2.73 mg kg-1 Zn, and 0.85  0.55 mg kg-1 Cu. Contents of minerals varied during the lactation period, but no significant trends were observed.

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787-792 A. Pisponen, S. Pajumägi, H. Mootse, A. Sats, V. Poikalainen and A. Karus
Effect of cooling rates and low crystallization temperatures on morphology of lactose crystals obtained from Ricotta cheese whey
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Effect of cooling rates and low crystallization temperatures on morphology of lactose crystals obtained from Ricotta cheese whey

A. Pisponen*, S. Pajumägi, H. Mootse, A. Sats, V. Poikalainen and A. Karus

Department of Food Science and Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: anna.pisponen@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the traditional process of lactose production from cheese whey crystallization temperature is reached by slow cooling. Lactose morphology obtained in this way has been well investigated. The objective of this work was to study morphological parameters of lactose crystals during crystallization at low temperatures, using rapid and extra rapid cooling. Ricotta whey was chosen for analysis because this raw material has been poorly investigated as a source of lactose production. Three temperatures (2, 6 and 12°C) were used for crystallization of lactose. Rapid (0.5°C min-1) and extra rapid cooling (3°C min-1) rates were used to achieve these temperatures. Dimensions of crystals were examined with optical stereo-, and scanning electron microscopes. Pure lactose solution was used as a reference during the study. The results of the study showed the impact of some Ricotta whey components on the crystals morphology and size. These components reduce crystals size, and linked with low crystallization temperature, modify the shape of crystals faces. Extra rapid cooling of Ricotta whey contributes to the growth of needle-like crystals more than the rapid one. In a pure lactose solution no needle-shaped crystals were observed.

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