Tag Archives: legumes

xxx L. Proskina and S. Cerina
Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective
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Legumes in the diet of dairy cows from the economic perspective

L. Proskina¹* and S. Cerina²

¹Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes street 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.proskina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Based on the experimental data, one can conclude that feed rations may comprise peas var. ‘Bruno’ and faba beans var. ‘Lielplatone’ grown in Latvia, thereby replacing the use of imported soybean cake. After summarising the results of trials, one can conclude that the diets comprising only one kind of legumes (peas or beans) were the most economically efficient, while the highest production efficiency was achieved if incorporating 22–24% ‘Lielplatone’ faba beans into the diet for dairy cows. In Europe and Latvia, foods of animal origin comprise, on average, 45% of the total agricultural output value; an essential role in the production of the foods is played by the supply of protein-rich feedstuffs to the livestock industry. An analysis of the factors influencing productivity in dairy farming shows that a diet is the most important factor that promote or hinder the functioning of the inherited genetic potential. In order to meet the dietary energy, protein and mineral requirements of cows, the cows have to be fed a diet according to their physiological condition. In recent years in many countries, research investigations into protein sources have been conducted, as a high protein content of feedstuff is the most expensive component of a feed ration. For this reason, their use in livestock diets might be economically inefficient and therefore the key focus has to be placed on opportunities to increase the content of protein in domestically produced feeds.

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594–601 L. Talgre, H. Roostalu, E. Mäeorg and E. Lauringson
Nitrogen and carbon release during decomposition of roots and shoots of leguminous green manure crops
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Nitrogen and carbon release during decomposition of roots and shoots of leguminous green manure crops

L. Talgre¹*, H. Roostalu², E. Mäeorg¹ and E. Lauringson¹

¹Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Nordic conditions, soils are frozen during winter, affecting the decomposition rates of crop residues. Hence, the decomposition rates of above- and underground biomass and the dynamics of the N and C released into the soil were studied in trials focused on green manure crops. The decomposition of the residue and N release from the residue varied among the five species of legume tested. There was a marked difference in decomposition rates between shoots and roots, which may also be explained by the differences in the chemical composition of the residue. The shoot residue decomposes rapidly and it serves as a source of N for the subsequent crop. The root residue decomposes more slowly and this had a positive effect in a crop rotation in the second year.

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311-316 F.L. Stoddard
Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations
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Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations

F.L. Stoddard

Dept. Agricultural Sciences, PL 27 (Latokartanonkaari 5), 00014 University ofHelsinki, Finland; email frederick.stoddard@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Abstract: Rotations in the Nordic and Baltic region are, as elsewhere in Europe, heavily biased towards cereals. Broadleaved crops in general, and grain legumes in particular, offer a range of environmental and agricultural benefits that are inadequately exploited in this region. This article reviews some of the options available to the region. Brassica oilseeds can be used as catch crops, cover crops and biofumigants, as well as for their oil and protein-rich meal. Fibre hemp is a good soil-cleaning crop with excellent bioenergy potential. Grain legumes produce food and animal feed locally while contributing positively to soil health, and are particularly under-exploited regionally, in spite of the availability of suitable germplasm. The prospects for using mainstream alternative crops in regional rotations are therefore very good and this use should lead to improved agricultural sustainability and economic viability.

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341-346 E. Koskor, R. Muljar, K. Drenkhan, R. Karise, A. Bender, E. Viik,A. Luik and M. Mänd
The chronic effect of the botanical insecticide Neem EC on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L.
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The chronic effect of the botanical insecticide Neem EC on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L.

E. Koskor¹, R. Muljar¹, K. Drenkhan¹, R. Karise¹, A. Bender², E. Viik¹,A. Luik¹ and M. Mänd¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi Str. 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia; phone: +372 7313396;fax +372 7313351; e-mail: eda.koskor@ut.ee
²Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Aamisepa 1, Jõgeva alevik 48 309, Jõgeva, Estonia

Abstract:

The botanical insecticide Neem EC is allowed for use as a pest control agent in organic farming. Although the preparation is considered safe for honey bees, its effect on bumble bees has been less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sublethal chronic doses of the botanical insecticide Neem EC (1% azadirachtin) on the pollen forage of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. Four pairs of colonies (one pair consisting of a test and a control colony) were placed at 0, 400, 800 and 1200 m from leguminous fields. Prior to taking the colonies to the field the test colonies were fed with a sublethal dose of Neem EC (0.01 ppm azadirachtin in the food) for a three-week period, whereas the control colonies were fed untreated food. Pollen loads of homing bees were removed and analysed. Our results show that sublethal doses of Neem EC may affect the pollen forage of bumble bees.

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