Tag Archives: litter

359–366 B. Cemek, E. Kucuktopcu and Y. Demir
Determination of spatial distribution of ammonia levels in broiler houses
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Determination of spatial distribution of ammonia levels in broiler houses

B. Cemek*, E. Kucuktopcu and Y. Demir

Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural
Structures and Irrigation, TR 55139 Samsun, Turkey
*Correspondence:bcemek@omu.edu.tr

Abstract:

Ammonia concentration plays a significant role in broiler performance. High concentration of ammonia impairs the immune system and increases cases of respiratory disease in birds. Ammonia concentration can be reduced using various chemical additives such as zeolite. In the present study, spatial variability of ammonia concentration was investigated and analysed in two broiler houses. In House 1 (H1) sawdust only was used as litter material whilst sawdust used together with zeolite was used in House 2 (H2). Ammonia concentration measurements were taken from 21 points in each of the broiler houses. The readings were recorded at on a weekly basis using birds’ height as height measurement bases. In order to create spatial distribution maps, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) methods were used and analysed. The performances of these techniques were assessed by using validation test methods (root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE)) with the best performing method (lowest RMSE and MAE) being selected for creating ammonia spatial distribution maps. The results indicated that spatial ammonia distribution is more uniform in H2 compared to H1. It was also observed that ammonia levels were lower in H2 than H1. The presence of zeolite as a litter addition can be attributed to study findings positively affected the broiler performance. It was considered that using zeolite with sawdust as litter material significantly reduced ammonia concentration. In H1, higher ammonia concentrations of greater than 25 ppm were recorded near ventilation fans and at the centre of the house. Because of this it is recommended to install additional fans at middle of the house for remove harmful ammonia.

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228–235 J. Said, Š. Boďo, T. Saady, R. Gálik, S. Sardary and K. Abbas
Effect of broiler chickens living conditions on results of fattening
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Effect of broiler chickens living conditions on results of fattening

J. Said², Š. Boďo¹*, T. Saady², R. Gálik¹, S. Sardary² and K. Abbas²

¹Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of
Agriculture in Nitra, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 949SK 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Agricultural College, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Karkuk St. Erbil, Kurdistan region,
Republic of Iraq
*Correspondence: stefan.bodo@uniag.sk

Abstract:

This work was aimed to monitor outdoor temperature, air humidity and internal microclimate conditions in broilers house during summer days, the temperature and the quality of bedding material as well as bird density. To evaluate the quality of litter we set three-tier system. If the litter dry and hard – value was ‘1’ if it was moist and supple – value was ‘2’, and if it was wet – value was ‘3’. The measurements were carried out on the 10th and 20th days of chickens age. Air temperature was monitored by (logger Comet R 3120) thermometer and for the measurement of the litter temperature used a non-contact thermometer (Raytek Raynger ST). To find out the birds density a thermocamera (Guide TP8S) for thermal imaging was used and subsequent shots are evaluated the birds stocking density. If the bird density high, value was ‘1’, if the bird density median, value was ‘2’ and if the density low, value was ‘3’. The hall was divided into 33 rectangular shapes. Results showed that the bedding quality averageed 1.2 on day 10 and 1.3 on day 20 of fattening (dry and hard). By comparing the P values and the significance level α (0.05), the value of 0.651 and 0.820 was found respectively for both age. No significance was detected between the litter temperature and the litter quality, also between bedding temperature and birds density. Intercomparison for bedding temperature and quality on days 10 and 20 a significant difference (0.000 < 0.05) was observed.

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