The effect of soil tillage technologies on the surface of the infiltration speed of water into the soil
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129,
CZ 165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
Water erosion is a problem of global significance. Water erosion causes destruction or damage to enormous areas of agricultural land every year (Morgan, 2005). Agricultural land in the Czech Republic is largely exposed to the risk of water erosion on grounds of habitat, but as well agro technology. More than half of agricultural land is endangered by water erosion in the Czech Republic (Janeek, 2005). Due to water erosion the soil is depleted of its most fertile part – topsoil. The physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s surface are deteriorating, the content of nutrients and humus in the soil reduce, and the thickness of the soil profile decreases. However the grimness increases and prevents the growth of vegetation. The field trial was set up to evaluate the tillage technology. The measurements were carried out in Nesperská Lhota. The experiment was placed into a sandy loam Cambisol. The measurements took place in four variants of field trial which differed in soil tillage for maize. It was a different method combination of no-till and plough tillage. The simulation of intense rain was used to measure. A square area of the size 0.5 sq m was surrounded by sheet metal strips around the whole perimeter. The pantograph was placed on their underside and collected the runoff water. The soil washout was collected into the pipe and then into a graduated container. The surface runoff was collected in the container and weighed on automatic scales. Its values were recorded on a portable computer. The result of the measurement showed the difference between the various types of tillage. The beginning of the surface runoff at conventional tillage with ploughing was the shortest of all the variants. While the beginning of the surface runoff was reduced significantly longer by reduce tillage than by conventional tillage with ploughing. The results of the surface runoff speed and the speed of infiltration of water into the soil at the simulation of intense rains are in compliance with the results of those authors who report significant benefits of soil conservation tillage technology. This technology reduced the surface water runoff during the intense rainfall and increased water
infiltration into the soil.