Tag Archives: manure

708-716 G. Hampejs, A. Jäger, S. Steiner and K. Steiner
Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal
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Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal

G. Hampejs¹*, A. Jäger¹, S. Steiner¹ and K. Steiner²

¹University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bio & Environmental Technology, Stelzhamerstr. 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
²HBLA Ursprung, Ursprungstraße 4, AT5161 Salzburg Austria
*Correspondence: g.hampejs@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Odours released during the land application of manure results from different gases released from the liquid phase. These gases do create objectionable odours in the vicinity of the land-applied manure. In order to reduce the intensity of odour during manure application, we investigated the effectiveness of combining Borkohle with manure during land application.
Boracic acid is widely used as a flame retardant in cellulose insulation. During demolition of existing buildings, this insulation is sorted into its own residual waste fraction. The cellulose fibres are extracted and pelletized on site. Subsequently, the pellets are charred in a pyrolysis furnace. The resulting Borkohle – charcoal containing boron in various compounds – can be used as a soil enhancer and provides the trace element Boron to the fields. Furthermore, Borkohle provides long-term storage of carbon in the soil. Initial trials of combining boracic charcoal with manure additionally showed that odour emissions seemed to be significantly lower when manure was combined with Borkohle.
This work presents methods to quantify the odour reductions resulting from the addition of Borkohle to manure as well as first results. Parameters like the influence of the amount of charcoal added and exposure time have been investigated.
Charcoal was added at concentrations between 5 and 250 g L-1. While applying typical amounts of charcoal, a reduction of odour concentration of up to 85% was observed. A positive correlation between odour reduction and the amount of charcoal added was observed. Charcoal has a negligible effect when exposure times are less than 30 minutes.

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443-453 M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji, A. Kryeziu, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani
The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase
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The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase

M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji*, A. Kryeziu**, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani

University of Prishtina, ‘Hasan Prishtina’, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Biotechnology in Zootechnics, Tahir Zajmi 34, XK10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspdence: skender.muji@uni–pr.edu
**This author contributed equally to this work

Abstract:

An 8–week experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding phytase (Natuphos® 5000 BASF) to low and normal available phosphorus diets of laying hens on the excreta content and excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. A total of 144 Hisex Brown laying hens that were 22 weeks old at the start of the experiment were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Treatments included three replicates (12 hens each) or 36 hens per treatment in total. Four corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain two levels of available phosphorus (AP; 0.12 and 0.46%) and two phytase levels (0 and 600 FTU kg–1). The results showed that there was no significant effect of added phytase on excreta Ca and Mg content (P > 0.05), but there was a significant effect of the dietary treatment on the content of Zn (P = 0.0075) and Cu (P = 0.0002). In terms of the excretion of these minerals, the dietary treatment had no effect on Ca and Zn excretion and a borderline effect (P = 0.0522) on Mg excretion measured as the amount of the mineral excreted per egg mass produced is observed. The results however showed a very strong effect of all three factors (available phosphorus, phytase and their interaction) on Cu excretion. The results indicate that adding 600 FTU to the corn-soybean meal laying hen diet with 0.12% or 0.46% AP beneficially affects the content and the excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. Therefore, we can conclude that a laying hen diet containing 0.12% available phosphorus and 600 FTU during the first production cycle may not only satisfactorily support hens’ performance but will also beneficially affect the environment.

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1822–1830 A. Aboltins, J. Priekulis, B. Aboltina and L. Melece
Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage
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Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage

A. Aboltins¹*, J. Priekulis¹, B. Aboltina² and L. Melece³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Zellu str. 25, LV-1002 Riga, Latvia
³Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Struktoru str. 14, LV-1039 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@llu.lv

Abstract:

In accordance with the international and EU aims to reduce emissions of ammonia and other air pollution substances farm manure management, including its storage, especially for the animal breeding sector, is one of the most essential stages. One of the preventing steps is covering of the slurry lagoons. The most effective – hard covering can be provided only after the lagoon is constructed. The aim of the research: to develop methodology for calculations of emission reducing lagoon design volume and surface area. In the result of the theoretical research the possibilities of reducing the reflection surfaces at the same capacity of the lagoon have been discovered, as well as the changes of the reflection surface area, if instead of one lagoon several lagoons with less volume are installed and sequential filling of these lagoons is ensured. The article presents the calculation algorithms obtained during the research and recommendations for construction of low emission lagoons.

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396-404 J. Priekulis, A. Aboltins and A. Laurs
Amount of manure used for biogas production
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Amount of manure used for biogas production

J. Priekulis, A. Aboltins* and A. Laurs

Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Methods for calculation of the amount of manure from every agricultural animal species and subgroup for production of biogas have been developed in compliance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. These methods can be applied for future forecasts if the amount of biogas produced in the country increases. It has been stated that in 2013 in Latvia for production of biogas mostly chicken and pig manure was used – correspondingly 33.7% and 26.7% from the amount of manure obtained from these animals. In the forecast for 2020, in turn, it is expected that the consumption of manure will be 31.9% of chicken manure and 31.5% of pig manure, from the amount of manure obtained from the corresponding group of animals.

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175-182 E. Baksiene
The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol
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The influence of lake sediments on the fertility of Cambisol

E. Baksiene

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius; e- mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Lake sediments as a potential fertilizer were studied at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 1994–2004. The aim of the research was to establish the influence of lake sediments and their mixtures with other organic matter (manure, sewage) on the crop yield and soil agrochemical and physical properties; to compare the effect of sediments with that of a sediment-manure mixture.Experimental evidence suggests that lake sediments had no effect on soil acidity. Thehigher rate of sediments (100 t ha-1) increased the content of total nitrogen in the soil by 0.002–0.021 and humus by 0.53 percentage units. Application of lake sediments had a positive impact on the quality of physical properties of sandy loam Cambisol. Various rates of sediments increased the soil moisture content and porosity, and declined soil bulk density. The rate of lake sediments 50,100 t ha-1 increased the productivity of crop rotation by 8–30%, manure – by 21–25%. Fertilization with lake sediments at a rate of 100 t ha-1 and pure manure produced 25–30% of the yield of energy units per year.

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300-304 D. Karcauskiene and R. Repsiene
Long-term manuring and liming effect on moraine loam soil fertility
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Long-term manuring and liming effect on moraine loam soil fertility

D. Karcauskiene and R. Repsiene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Vezaiciai branch, Vezaiciai, Gargždu 29,LT-96216, Lithuania; e-mail: danuteo@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Soil fertility is influenced by different forms of land use. In a field trial (Western Lithuania, Vezaiciai branch of the Lithuanian Agriculture Institute) two manure rates (40 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1) were introduced in acid and limed soil. The mineral fertilization in both acid and limed soil was the same: N60P60K60 for cereals, N120P90K150 for forage beet, N40P60K60 for barley with undercrop, P60K90 for perennial grasses in the 1st usage year, N60P60K90 for perennial grasses in the 2nd usage year. It was revealed that the long-term manuring and liming combination had a positive effect on moraine loam Dystric Albeluvisol fertility. Application of manure in acid and limed soil increases the nutrient stocks in the rooting zone of crops, increases pH value, amount of organic carbon and thus improves the topsoil structure. Long term manuring at rate 60 tha-1 resulted in the highest amount of mobile phosphorus (329 mg kg-1) in limed topsoil. The amount of mobile aluminium was reduced from 112.9 to 16.6 mg kg-1 if manure at a rate of 60 t ha-1 was applied. The combination of liming and fertilization ensure soil chemical indicators at the optimal level for more plant growth.

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355-362 R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė
The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming
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The integrated evaluation of the influence of catch crops and manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming

R. Kosteckas and A. Marcinkevičienė

Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11,Akademija, Kaunas district, LT–53361, Lithuania, tel. +370 37 752211;e-mail: lzuustotis@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Details of the field experiments which were carried out in the Kazliskiai organic farm from 1999–2001 were needed for our investigations. The integrated evaluation method enabled us to make complex evaluation of the influence of catch crops (red clover, common ryegrass, white mustard and winter rape) for green manure and animal manure on spring barley agrocenosis in organic farming. The variances of the 11 indicators were subdivided into scales of 9 points. The resulting evaluation points were marked in a network diagram. The evaluation threshold, which is equal to 5 points, was also marked. The integrated evaluation index, consisting of the average of evaluation points, its standard deviation and standard deviation of the average of evaluation points which are below the evaluation threshold, was calculated. The influence of red clover for green manure on barley agrocenosis, according to the calculated integrated evaluation indices, is stronger than that of other catch crops and manure.

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111–119 E. Bakšiene
Effects of lake sediments on changes in sandy loam cambisol properties and on crop productivity
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Effects of lake sediments on changes in sandy loam cambisol properties and on crop productivity

E. Bakšiene

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikšte 2, Traku Voke, LT-02232 Vilnius; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The feasibility of using lake sediments as fertilisers has been studied at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture since 1994. The experiments were carried out on a sandy loam cambisol on two backgrounds (without mineral fertilisers and with minimal rates of mineral fertilisers) in the crop rotation (maize, barley with under-crop, perennial grasses of the 1st and 2nd years of use, winter rye) with the application of calcareous (25 t ha-1), organic (10, 40 t ha-1) and siliceous (25, 100 t ha-1) lake sediments and their mixtures with manure and limestone. Organic fertilisers were applied only to the first crop (maize) in the rotation.
Experimental evidence suggests that calcareous sediment and limestone declined soil acidity, whereas organic and siliceous sediments had no effect on soil acidity. Only the higher rate of organic (40 t ha-1) and siliceous (100 t ha-1) sediments increased the content of total nitrogen in soil by 0.002–0.021 and that of humus by 0.53 percentage units. Fertilisation with mineral fertilisers compensated for the amount of mobile phosphorus and potassium necessary for crop growth.
The application of lake sediments had a positive impact on the quality of sandy loam cambisol physical properties. Organic and siliceous sediments increased the soil moisture content and porosity and declined the soil bulk density to a higher degree than calcareous sediment. Calcareous sediment improved the afore-mentioned soil physical characteristics to a greater extent compared with limestone. All rates of organic sediment gave a crop yield increase of 4–20%, 10 t ha-1 of sediment with 25 t ha-1of manure gave a yield increase of 22–25%, and 50 and 100 t ha-1 rates of siliceous sediment a yield increase of 8–30%.

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13–22 V. Boguzas, A. Marcinkeviciene and A. Kairyte
Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of weed seed bank in organic farming
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Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of weed seed bank in organic farming

V. Boguzas¹, A. Marcinkeviciene² and A. Kairyte¹

¹Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, Akademija, LT–53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; tel. +370 37 752233; e–mail: bovac@nora.lzuu.lt
²Experiment Station, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Noreikiskes, LT–53367 Kauno r., Lithuania; tel. +370 37 752217; e–mail: lzuustotis@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The influence of organic farming on weed seed bank under two different crop rotations: with and without manure, was investigated in an organic farm of Kazliskiai over the period of 1997–2002. Proven by qualitative index, organic farming increases the diversity of weed species. Seeds of 10 weed species were found in one experimental field at the beginning of a transition period and, after 6-year organic farming, the diversity of weeds increased almost up to 16 species. In all years of the investigation, seeds of Chenopodium album, Fallopia convolvulusand Stellaria media were found in 0–25 cm soil layer. In the sixth year of organic farming there were found 26.3, 70.0 and 91.2% less seeds of the mentioned species, respectively, compared with the transition period. At the beginning of organic farming, the amount of weed seeds in the soil was 28.0% bigger in fields of crop rotation with manure, compared to crop rotation without manure but, in the sixth year of organic farming, the difference disappeared. All weeds were distributed into 3 biological and 4 ecophysiological groups and 3 types of dispersal. Most of seeds found in 0–25 cm soil layers were therophytes. Most of them germinate in summer, spread by water (barochory), because Chenopodium albumdominates. Both in fields of the 1st and 2nd crop rotation and in all experimental years, the quantitative and qualitative distribution of weeds into biological, ecophysiological groups and types of dispersal was even, with the exception of ecophysiological groups in crop rotation with manure.

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