Tag Archives: milk.

1295–1303 R. Fatkullin,, N. Popovа, I. Kalinina and V. Botvinnikova
Application of ultrasonic waves for the improvement of particle dispersion in drinks
Abstract |
Full text PDF (427 kB)

Application of ultrasonic waves for the improvement of particle dispersion in drinks

R. Fatkullin¹,*, N. Popovа¹, I. Kalinina¹ and V. Botvinnikova²

¹ South Ural State University, Higher Medical-Biological School, Department of Food and Biotechnologies, Lenin Ave 76, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia.
² ООVО IL Test-Puschino, 1g Gruzovaya Street, Puschino, Moscow Region 142290, Russia.
*Correspondence: fatkullinri@susu.ru

Abstract:

Dispersion is one of the most energy-costly processes in food production. Significant proportions of hard particles remain intact when traditional dispersion methods are used. The intensification of dispersion will lead to the more effective extraction of biologically active components from raw bulk. It will also expedite the ripening of products and will improve their consumer desirability. The goal of this research was to study the dispersing effect of low frequency ultrasound (US) on drinks which are of vegetable and animal origin (22 ± 0.6 kHz). The subjects of the research were raw cow’s milk, reconstituted milk, and cranberry drinks which had been produced with the use of traditional technology and employing ultrasonic power. An ultrasonic technological device with an umbrella-shaped working element was used as an ultrasound generator (Russian Federation patent No 2141386). A Nanotrac Ultra analyser (made by Microtrac Inc, USA) was used to study particle size, using the ISO 13321 standard. An analysis of particle size was based on the method which employs the dynamic dispersion of light, in which the minimal detectable particle size is 0.8 nm. It was found that the particles in raw cow’s milk, after ultrasonic processing at 180 W for dive minutes, decrease in size from 2,656 ± 72 nanometres to a prevailing particle size of 294.7 ± 24 nanometres. Following the US processing of reconstituted milk (with power at 180 W and action time at three minutes), the size of the particles decreases from 409.5 ± 62 nanometres to a prevailing particle size in the range of 202.2 ± 41 nanometres. With the cranberry drink, using ultrasound at 180 W for five minutes caused a decrease in particle size from 5,670 ± 62 nm to a prevailing size of 1,960 ± 42 nm. With an increase in ultrasound power and the duration of the application, an aggregation of particles was noted in both plant and animal-derived drinks. Therefore it can be seen that ultrasound can be used to regulate the dispersion processes in food manufacturing.

Key words:

, , ,




879-891 U. Antone, J. Zagorska, V. Sterna, A. Jemeljanovs, A. Berzins, and D. Ikauniece
Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances
Abstract |
Full text PDF (551 kB)

Effects of dairy cow diet supplementation with carrots on milk composition, concentration of cow blood serum carotenes, and butter oil fat-soluble antioxidative substances

U. Antone¹*, J. Zagorska², V. Sterna¹, A. Jemeljanovs¹³, A. Berzins³⁴, and D. Ikauniece¹⁴

¹Agency of the Latvia University of Agriculture ‘Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine ‘Sigra’’, Instituta 1, Sigulda, LV- 2150, Latvia
²Faculty of Food Technology, the Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, LV 3001, Latvia
³Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the Latvia University of Agriculture, K.Helmana 8, Jelgava, LV 3004, Latvia
⁴Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment ‘BIOR’, Lejupes 3, Riga, LV 1076, Latvia
*Correspondence: u.antone@gmail.com

Abstract:

Fat-soluble constituents of milk – β-carotene and α-tocopherol – are essential for quality and nutritional value of milk and dairy products. Provision of fat-soluble antioxidants and vitamins such as carotenoids and vitamin E necessary for cow organism and milk synthesis depends on their concentration in fodder. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cow feed supplementation by carrots on the total carotene concentration in cow blood serum, on fat, protein, lactose concentration in milk, and milk yield, as well as to investigate the effects on β-carotene and α-tocopherol concentration in butter oil and intensity of its yellow colour. A total 20 cows of Latvian brown (n = 8) and Danish red (n = 12) breed were divided into control (CG) and experimental group (EG). In the EG, cow feed was supplemented with seven kg of carrots per cow per day for six weeks at the end of the indoor period (March–May). Milk samples from indoor period (n = 100) and grazing (n = 20) were used for butter oil extraction. The carotene concentration observed in blood of animals before the experiment was insufficient taking into account that the recommended β-carotene concentration in serum is above 3.0 mg l-1 level. During indoor period the increase in carotene concentration in blood of cows was significant in both groups (P < 0.05) but in EG it was more eplicit showing the positive effect of carrot supplementation. Carrot supplementation did not change milk fat, protein, lactose concentration, and yield (P > 0.05). At the same time it contributed in more stable β-carotene, as well as 30% higher α-tocopherol concentration and more intense yellow colour of butter oil samples during the indoor period of the experiment (P < 0.05).

Key words:

, , , ,




801-806 A. Sats, H. Mootse, S. Pajumägi, A. Pisponen, V. Tatar and V. Poikalainen
Estimation of Particle Size Distribution in Bovine Colostrum Whey by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) Method
Abstract |
Full text PDF (218 kB)

Estimation of Particle Size Distribution in Bovine Colostrum Whey by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) Method

A. Sats*, H. Mootse, S. Pajumägi, A. Pisponen, V. Tatar and V. Poikalainen

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi ⁵⁶/⁵, EE⁵¹0¹⁴ Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: andres.sats@emu.ee

Abstract:

Colostrum whey consist bioactive compounds in considerable concentration. For isolation of these compounds the particle size has crucial importance. The aim of this work was to study possibilities of using dynamic light scattering method – DLS (Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS) for colostrum whey particle size distribution estimation. The first and second milking colostrum samples were skimmed by centrifugal separation and casein of these was enzymatically coagulated by rennet (chymosin). Obtained whey was diluted (¹:²00) by distilled water and filtered (cut-off 0.⁴⁵ m) to get probes for estimation of particle size. Particle size distribution in colostrum whey probes had maximally three peaks and polydispersity indices from 0.¹⁵⁷ to 0.⁵⁴¹. Prevailing peak of the distribution was found at size from ¹⁴⁴ to ²¹0 nm, which apparently corresponds to hydrodynamic diameter of immunoglobulin IgG¹.

Key words:

, , , ,




323-326 M. Malbe, T. Otstavel, I. Kodis and A. Viitak
Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (591 kB)

Content of selected micro and macro elements in dairy cows’ milk in Estonia

M. Malbe¹, T. Otstavel¹, I. Kodis¹ and A. Viitak²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13,75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: marge.malbe@eria.ee; teet.otstavel@eria.ee; ingrid.kodis@eria.ee
²Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology,Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia; e-mail: anu.viitak@ttu.ee

Abstract:

Milk and milk products are an important source of dietary minerals for consumers. The content of the micro and macro elements in food varies among and within countries. Information about concentration of micro and macro elements in Estonian food is limited. To get preliminary information about calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) content in raw milk, samples from 8 Estonian conventional and 2 organic dairy farms, as well as from 2 consumer milks produced by different dairies were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). No suboptimal micro and macro element concentrations were found in raw milk samples. However, concentration of dietary minerals in consumer milk was lower than the concentration in raw milk except Fe, which was higher in consumer milk.

Key words:

, , , ,