Tag Archives: nitrogen fertilization

500-509 L. Litke Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality

L. Litke¹²* Z. Gaile¹ and A. Ruža¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Lielā iela 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm "Pēterlauki", Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production costs and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N150(90+60), N180(90+60+30), N210(90+70+50), and N240(120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate (p < 0.001) and forecrop (p < 0.05). Three-year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators (p < 0.001). Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N-rate from N150 up to N210

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517-529 I. Małecka and A. Blecharczyk
Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)
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Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)

I. Małecka¹ and A. Blecharczyk²

¹ Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: malecka@up.poznan.pl
² Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: blechar@up.poznan.pl

Abstract:

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared with the no-mulch treatment. A mulch of straw provided a smaller barley grain yield than the no-mulch treatment. Compared to conventional tillage, grain yield under reduced tillage and no-tillage were 7 and 12% less, respectively. Spring barley sowing after a mixture of oat-pea led to decreased a negative response of reduced and no-tillage. Grain yield after treatment with legume cover crops and without N fertilization was similar compared as the rates 50 kg N ha-1 after white mustard or phacelia and as the rate 100 kg N ha-1 without mulches. There was no evidence of tillage x N fertilization interaction on grain yield, dry matter production and plant-N uptake. Cover crops and straw mulch significantly decreased total weed populations compared with the treatment without mulch. Total weed density increased from 108 plants per m2 in the no-tillage to 322 plants per m2 for reduced tillage, and to 416 plants per m2 for the conventional tillage over mulch. Higher infestation of spring barley with stem base and root diseases was observed in reduced and no-tillage in comparison with the conventional soil tillage and after straw mulch and no-mulch than after cover crops.

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555-561 T. Tranavičienė, A. Urbonavičiūtė, G.Samuolienė, P. Duchovskis,I. Vagusevičienė and A. Sliesaravičius
The effect of differential nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents in the two winter wheat varieties
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The effect of differential nitrogen fertilization on photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents in the two winter wheat varieties

T. Tranavičienė¹, A. Urbonavičiūtė²⋅³, G.Samuolienė²⋅³, P. Duchovskis¹⋅²,I. Vagusevičienė¹ and A. Sliesaravičius¹

¹ Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Animal Husbandry,53067 Akademija, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail: kokybe@kauno-grudai.lt
² Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno g. 30, 54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania
³ Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Department of Botany

Abstract:

The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on photosynthetic indices in two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties ‘Ada’ and ‘Seda’ was investigated in the experimental station of Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007. The rates of fertilizers during wheat vegetation were as follows: N90, N120 and N150. In sowing time bothvarieties were fertilized with N30P80K120. In tillering stage plants were fed with calcium-ammonium nitrate N60 and N80. In stem elongation stage they were fertilized through leaves withcarbamide solution N30 and N40. Wheat photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate contents weredetermined in flowering and seed growth stages. The results of analysis show that photosynthetic pigment and carbohydrate status are suitable indicators of the activity of the winter wheat photosynthetic system. Suitably selected nitrogen fertilization design may delay the natural senescence processes. However, the emergence of the indices of senescence is also dependent on environmental conditions. Nitrogen remobilization and photosynthetic activity during natural senescence is cultivar specific. The photosynthetic system of ‘Ada’ wheat variety is more sensitive to the evocative factors than ‘Seda’ wheat. The soluble sugars also participate in senescence launching: the lower hexoses/sucrose ratio corresponds to decline in photosynthetic pigment degradation. Earlier photosynthetic senescence corresponds to reduced wheat grain yields.

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