Tag Archives: nutrients

xxx N. Montemurro, G. Cucci, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro
The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater
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The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

N. Montemurro, G. Cucci*, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – University of Bari – Via Amendola 165/A, IT70126 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanna.cucci@uniba.it

Abstract:

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation is an established alternative to conventional water, in many countries of the world, particularly where or when water resources are extremely limited. Wastewater reuse could represent a double benefit when used in agriculture, helping overcome any lack of water resources and additionally, enriching the soil with nutrients – especially nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the experimental site of Castellana Grotte (Apulia region, Southern Italy) during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons, vegetable crops (fennel and lettuce) in succession were drip-irrigated with three different water sources. Two reclaimed water streams, obtained by applying different treatment schemes to the same municipal wastewater (an effluent from the full-scale treatment plant and an effluent from the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge – Membrane BioReactor pilot plant) and a conventional source, to verify the crops response and nutrient contribution through wastewater supply.
Both lettuce and fennel yields were enhanced by the high content of nutrients in the effluent of one of the treatment plants, which had been operated for partial nitrogen removal. For Fennel 2013/14, wastewater-reuse led to a 54% reduction of nitrogen supply in relation to the other plots normally fertilized. In this way, an estimated saving of about 98.00 € ha-1 was achieved.
Crops irrigated with treated wastewater operated for partial nitrogen removal (IMBR) showed early ripening (8 days for lettuce and 35 days for fennel 2013/14) and better quality than others not similarly-treated. However, the wastewater presented a nitrate content in excess of legal limits (35 mg L-1, D.M. 185/2003). Therefore, the contribution of nutrients increased production (47 vs 32 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2012/13 fennel theses, 53 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013 lettuce theses and 40 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013/14 fennel theses respectively) and improved product quality, while simultaneously saving money for chemical fertilizers not supplied, producing less environmental impact.

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445-452 V. Scholz, J. Kern and P. Kaulfuß
Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial
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Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial

V. Scholz¹, J. Kern² and P. Kaulfuß³

¹Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany, e-mail: vscholz@atb-potsdam.de
²Postal address above, e-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de
³Postal address above, e-mail: pkaulfuss@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

In order to identify crop species for sustainable energy farming it is necessary to determine the significance of genetic, environmental and growing-technical factors. Therefore, in 1994 a  long-term practically oriented field experiment on a sandy soil was established to investigate ten annual and perennial plant species and the effects of different N-fertilisation. The measuring programme includes yields, energy gain, N2O emissions as well as ecologically relevant plant and soil constituents. The results of this 15-year trial confirm the possibility of ecological and energy-efficient production of various energy crop species.

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187–194 E. J. Kuht and E. Reintam
Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

E. J. Kuht¹ and E. Reintam²

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The long-term use of heavy-weight agricultural machinery has caused extensive and lasting phenomena of degradation, especially in the basic layer of soil. The influence of soil compaction by heavy tractor on spring wheat and barley has been investigated. The field trials were completed on a Stagnic Luvisol (WRB), quite characteristic of Estonia but sensitive to compaction. The results of soil measurements demonstrated a strongly negative effect of wet soil compaction on soil physical characteristics and were in good connection with the number of compactions carried out. In order to find out the nutrient assimilation ability of plants on these soils, the amount of elements (N; P; K; Ca; Mg) in the dry matter of spring wheat and spring barley was determined. It appeared that the nitrogen uptake ability of spring wheat plants decreased almost by 30% and that of barley by 40% in the case of heavy soil compaction (4 and 6 times). As a result of compaction, the content of potassium and calcium in barley and spring wheat was decreased as compared with the non-compacted area.

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139–144 J. Kuht, E. Reintam, H. Loogus and E. Nugis
Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils
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Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils

J. Kuht¹, E. Reintam², H. Loogus³ and E. Nugis³

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University
³Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture

Abstract:

The penetration resistance of different arable soils is quite different depending on the Estonian area. We are briefly introducing the results of our research on soil compaction, penetration resistance of different soils in Estonia, uptake of nutrients and changes of intracellular fluid pH of barley depending on soil bulk densities. These data were mainly collected in a research field (58º23´N, 26º44´E) of the Estonian Agricultural University, with different levels of soil compaction (10 levels) on sandy loam Fragi-Stagnic Albeluvisol (WRB) soil in 2001 and 2002. The investigated cultural plant was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In Estonia H. Loogus has studied changes of cellular fluid pH, depending on seedbed, by using  microelectrodes directly on plants by quick method. The effect of soil bulk density on cellular fluid pH of barley leaves generally depends of number of passes. The experiment showed also that a higher decrease in nitrogen content started at the same soil bulk density value as the cellular fluid pH quickly increased. If the soil bulk density was increasing up to level 1.52–1.54 Mg m-3, the cellular fluid pH suddenly increased very quickly. Nitrogen assimilation change in plants of barley decreased at the same bulk density values as a remarkable increase of intracellular pH was observed.

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