Tag Archives: oilseed rape

191-198 R. Domeika, A. Jasinskas, D. Steponavičius, E. Vaiciukevičius and V. Butkus
The estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses
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The estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses

R. Domeika, A. Jasinskas, D. Steponavičius, E. Vaiciukevičius and V. Butkus

Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: Rolandas.Domeika@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Oilseed rape harvesting losses, which occur during cutting, separation and cleaning and shaking, reach 5–10%; cutting and separation processes account for 80–90% of the total harvesting losses. A special test stand was prepared for the research of oilseed rape cutting and separation losses. It was established that the active twin-blade knife separator and the passive triangular separator on the header of a harvester have influence on the separation losses in 0.5 m on both sides of the separator motion line. Separation losses using the active twin-blade knife separator were twice less than using the passive triangular separator. The optimal active twin- blade knife separator moving speed is 5 km h-1. The analysis of the research results has revealed that traditional estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses are not correct and it is necessary to use a 0.1×0.1 m wire frame for the estimation of cutting losses and a 0.1×0.5 m wire frame for the estimation of separation losses.

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101-108 K. Trükmann, E. Reintam, J. Kuht, E. Nugis and L. Edesi
Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil
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Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil

K. Trükmann¹, E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, E. Nugis² and L. Edesi²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: katrin.trykmann@emu.ee
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Soil compaction is an environmental problem and has been recognized as the main form of soil degradation in Europe. Soil compaction may increase soil strength and compacted soil layers can affect root and shoot growth. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil compaction on soil properties and on the growth of narrow–leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Hertzg.), and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The experiment was carried out on the research field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences in the summers of 2004 and 2005 on the sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol. The field was compacted by tractor MTZ-82 (total weight 4.84 Mg) characterized by multiple tire-to-tire passing. Parameters such as plants biomass (roots and shoots) and the changes in physical properties, bulk density and penetration resistance of soil were measured. The results of the present study revealed that the highest increase of penetration resistance and soil bulk density due to the soil compaction occurred in growing spring barley. Although the roots and shoots mass of lupine and oilseed rape increased with increased soil bulk density, there was a very strong negative linear correlation between the roots and shoots weight and soil bulk density on spring barley. A positive correlation was detected between the roots and shoots mass of narrow–leafed lupine and soil bulk density, and soil compaction had a positive effect on the roots and shoots mass of oilseed rape. The study indicates that oilseed rape and narrow–leafed lupine can grow more successfully on compacted soils than can barley.

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137-140 I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene
Epidemiological studies into Phoma lingam (teleomorph Leptosphaeria maculans) infections in winter and spring oilseed rape
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Epidemiological studies into Phoma lingam (teleomorph Leptosphaeria maculans) infections in winter and spring oilseed rape

I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology and Protection,Instituto alėja 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. LT 58344, Lithuania;e-mail: brazausk@lzi.lt; egle@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Studies of the concentration of ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph Phoma lingam) in the air, appearance and variation of visual symptoms of phoma stem canker during the growing season of oilseed rape in relation to the main meteorological indicators were carried out. Spore samples, collected over 200 days in 2004 and 2005 using a Burkard spore trap, were analyzed using the method of microscopy. The first ascospores of Leptosphaeria maculans were found in the samples from 1 May 2004 and 9 April 2005. The abundance of ascospores in the air depended on the weather factors, especially the amount and frequency of precipitation. The first symptoms of phoma on the leaves of winter oilseed rape in 2004 were recorded at the end of October, and in 2005, in the spring crop on 3 May, i.e. three weeks later, after the first ascospores had been identified in the air. On 7 June 7 2005 the first symptoms of phoma stem canker were identified on stems of winter oilseed rape. Spring oilseed rape was more tolerant of phoma stem canker, compared with winter oilseed rape. At the end of maturity stage (BBCH 85), 83.2–81.0% of winter oilseed rape and 35.2–28.6% of spring oilseed rape stems with phoma stem canker symptoms were found in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Diseased stems of winter oilseed rape exhibited mostly double phoma symptoms – on the crown and on the stem 5 cm above the crown (78.4% in 2004 and up to 65% of diseased stems in 2005). Diseased stems of spring oilseed rape mainly displayed phoma symptoms 5cm above the crown (69.2–98.7%).

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227-230 R. Kevväi, E. Veromann, A. Luik and M. Saarniit
Cabbage seed weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk.) and its parasitoids in oilseed rape crops in Estonia
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Cabbage seed weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk.) and its parasitoids in oilseed rape crops in Estonia

R. Kevväi, E. Veromann, A. Luik and M. Saarniit

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, EE51014, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: reelika.kevvai@emu.ee

Abstract:

Abstract: Besides pollen beetles, the cabbage seed weevil is the second most numerous crucifer-specialist in Estonian oilseed rape crops. The occurrence of cabbage seed weevil and its hymenopterous parasitoids was studied in standard and integrated cropping systems in winter and spring oilseed rape crops in 2004–2005. Cabbage seed weevil is more synchronized with winter oilseed rape and its abundance was greater in winter than in spring. The average pod damage was 9.9% in winter and only 1.2% in the spring crop. In winter oilseed rape, the population of C. assimilis was more numerous in the integrated than in the standard cropping system. Three parasitoids of seed weevil – Trichomalus perfectus, Stenomalina gracilis, Mesopolobus morys – were caught with yellow water traps but their abundance was low. The larval parasitism rate was higher in the integrated cropping system (22.2%) than in the standard cropping system (9.7%). Trichomalus perfectus was the dominant species emerging from C. assimilis larvae.

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9–19 V. Gavelienė, L. Novickienė, L. Miliuvienė, I. Brazauskienė and D. Kazlauskienė
Possibilities to use growth regulators in winter oilseed rape growing technology 2. Effects of auxin analogues on the formation of oilseed rape generative organs and plant winterhardiness
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Possibilities to use growth regulators in winter oilseed rape growing technology 2. Effects of auxin analogues on the formation of oilseed rape generative organs and plant winterhardiness

V. Gavelienė¹, L. Novickienė¹, L. Miliuvienė¹, I. Brazauskienė² and D. Kazlauskienė¹

¹Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų ežerų 49, Vilnius 08406, Lithuania; e-mail: leonida@botanika.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Akademija 5051, Dotnuva parish, Kėdainiai distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

The effect of the physiological analogues of auxin, the compounds TA-12 and TA-14, on the apex development, growth, winterhardiness and productivity formation of the winter oilseed rape var. ‘Casino’ was studied. Field experiments were carried out in 2002–2004 at the experimental station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Dotnuva-Akademija. The results showed a positive effect of the compounds TA-12 (2·10-3 M) and TA-14 (4·10-3 M) on the autumnal development of oilseed rape plants and their preparation for overwintering: they stimulated the conversion of the apex vegetative phase into a generative one, promoted flower formation and further development, intensified monosaccharide accumulation in the root collum, and improved the winterhardiness of this culture. In test variants, the number of perished plants was lower than in the control. Data of our research demonstrated the functional involvement of sugars in the cold acclimation process of oilseed rape.
Application of compounds TA-12 (417 g ha-1) and TA-14 (369 g ha-1) to plants in autumn at the 4th–5th leaf formation stage not only enhanced winterhardiness but also influenced the further growth in spring and formation of yield components. Under the effect of the compounds TA-12 and TA-14 the number of siliguae on the main and lateral branches racemes and their seed mass increased. All these factors contributed to an extra seed yield by 0.45 and TA-14 by 0.64 t ha-1, respectively, the control yield being 3.53 t ha-1.

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121–133 I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene
Effects of fungicide application timing on the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and on the productivity of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.)
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Effects of fungicide application timing on the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and on the productivity of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.)

I. Brazauskiene and E. Petraitiene

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Dotnuva, LT-58344, Kedainiai distr., Lithuania;
e-mail: brazausk@lzi.lt, egle@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Three field experiments were carried out with the spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera annua Metzg.) cv. ‘Star’ to investigate the incidence, severity and harmfulness of Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) and to test the possibility of reducing the disease pressure by fungicidal spray applications of 45% Sportak (a.i. prochloraz) 0.675 kg a.i. ha-1 and 25% Folicur (a.i. tebuconazole) 0.25 kg a.i. ha-1. The fungicides were applied at different times, i.e. after the first spots ofAlternaria blight had appeared on the lower, middle and upper leaves or on siliques and at the end of spring oilseed rape flowering. Alternaria blight was present in crops of the spring oilseed rape cv. ‘Star’ in all the experimental years. The disease severity varied in individual years and was heavily dependent on the weather conditions (amount of precipitation and temperature). Of all the experimental years, the most conductive conditions to the spread and development of Alternaria blight on spring rape siliques occurred in 1998, when disease spots covered 18.65% of the surface area of siliques in the untreated plots. The tested fungicides had little effect on the disease incidence, however, prochloraz and tebuconazole applied on all dates declined the disease severity. The highest efficacy was recorded when the fungicides were applied after the first symptoms of Alternaria blight had been spotted on siliques. Tebuconazole suppressed the disease severity more effectively than prochloraz.
In the year most favourable for Alternaria blight occurrence (1998), the seed yield in the untreated plots was by up to 0.07 t ha-1 lower, and the disease severity on siliques was as much as 3.2 times higher than in the fungicide-sprayed treatment. The highest average spring rape seed yield increase resulting from fungicidal spray applications during the period 1997–1999 amounted to 0.040 t ha-1. Fungicides declined the content of Alternaria blight diseased seeds per silique, increased 1,000-seed weight, however, no significant effect of fungicides was identified on the number of siliques per plant and the number of seeds per siliqua.

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