Tag Archives: organic agriculture

217-223 J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė
Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture

J. Cesevičienė, A. Leistrumaitė and V. Paplauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: jurgita@lzi.lt

Abstract:

During the period 2004–2006, grain yield and quality characteristics of ten winter wheat (Triticum aestive L.) varieties from the very good, good and satisfactory baking quality groups were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture under the conditions of organic agriculture. Results showed a marked influence of climatically different years on the winter wheat varieties’ grain yield and quality characteristics (protein and gluten content, gluten quality by gluten index, sedimentation index according to Zeleny). When the growing conditions were rather dry and warmer (2006), compared with the long-term mean, grain yield was the poorest but grain quality was the best and grain of most of the winter wheat varieties met the requirements set for bread-making. The varieties ‘Lars’ and ‘Zentos’ combined high yield with stability, their sum of integral assessment of grain yield was respectively (11+) and (10+). From quality parameters in varieties a higher variability was noted for sedimentation (26.6–29.7%), but similar variation in separate years showed that this quality parameter was most stable over years. In overall high-quality varieties from the very good / good baking quality groups, an ecological way of growing may give good baking utilization possibilities but this strongly depends on environmental conditions. Varieties ‘Širvinta 1’ and ‘Ada’ were more stable concerning wet gluten content and sedimentation, ‘Zentos’ and ‘Alma’ – concerning gluten index. Glu-1 score corresponded significantly and positively with higher sedimentation, hectolitre weight and gluten index.

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277-282 S. Jasinskaite, V. Pilipavicius and P. Lazauskas
Perennial weed control by two layer ploughing
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Perennial weed control by two layer ploughing

S. Jasinskaite, V. Pilipavicius* and P. Lazauskas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu g.11, LT-53361 Akademija - Kaunas r.,Lithuania; e-mail: sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt, *vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt,petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt,
*Corresponding author

Abstract:

Experiments on methods of perennial weed control were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period 2002-2003. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of conventional ‘cultural’ cylindrical and two-layer plough technologies on perennial weed control in organic agriculture. The advantage of two-layer ploughing in decreasing perennial weed density and biomass in spring wheat and buckwheat crop was established. Elytrigia repens, Cirsium arvense, Tussilago farfara and Plantago major density and biomass had a tendency to decrease in different years of the trial.

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387-393 H. Lõiveke and K. Sepp
Effect of agrotechnical methods on occurrence of diseases and productiveness of cereals in organic agriculture
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Effect of agrotechnical methods on occurrence of diseases and productiveness of cereals in organic agriculture

H. Lõiveke¹ and K. Sepp²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse Str. 13,75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia; GSM 5101830; fax 6711540; e-mail: heino.loiveke@eria.ee
²Department of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse Str. 4/6, 75501Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The occurrence of diseases and productiveness in organic agriculture depending on sowing time, tillage method and use of manure was studied during 2006, 2007 and 2008. Infection of spring wheat with Septoria leaf blotch and powdery mildew and infection of spring barley with net and leaf blotch in the case of early and 2–2.5 weeks late sowing did not differ significantly towards the end of the vegetation period. The severity of common root rot was also virtually similar. Differences of yield favoured the earlier sowing. The severity of some diseases in spring barley did depend on tillage method. In the case of autumn ploughing the spring barley had less infection with common root rot and foliar diseases compared to the reduced autumn tillage. Yield differences also favoured autumn ploughing. The positive effect of manure on the severity of foliar diseases and common root rot was low or absent, but manure positively influenced productiveness of the cereals.

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444-450 V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė
Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat
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Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat

V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53361Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 11, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt, petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt; sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period of 2002–2003. The aim of the work was to investigate elements of non-chemical weed control methods as main soil tillage, pre-sowing and post-sowing tillage. According to theoretical preconditions and data of the experiment, it is proved that total turnover of the layer in organic agriculture is a very important means of weed control decreasing weediness of the crop and increasing harvest. Two types of plough in combination with different pre-sowing and post-sowing soil tillage implements and technologies in crops of spring wheat and buckwheat were investigated. Spring wheat crops were grown comprising two varieties differing in plant height for additional investigations of their crop smothering power for weeds. It was proven that, for weed control, two-layer ploughing technology was favourable to conventional ‘cultural’ ploughing technology and that taller varieties had greater smothering power for weeds than shorter ones.

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728-736 H. Risku-Norja and M. Mikkola
Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review
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Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review

H. Risku-Norja¹ and M. Mikkola²

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland;e-mail: helmi.risku-norja@mtt.fi
²University of Helsinki, Ruralia Institute, Lönnrotinkatu 7, FIN-50100 Mikkeli, Finland

Abstract:

Agriculture for food production has come to crossroads: while conventional agriculture needs to improve environmental and social performance, organic agriculture needs to increase the production volumes and to re-establish the connectedness between producers and consumers. Through re-localising the food production there is an increasing convergence of the farming practices towards sustainable agriculture acknowledging the prospects, advantages and limitations of the different production systems. The aim is to find a combination of production methods that is optimal in given circumstances and to adapt the production system accordingly. Assessment of the environmental impacts should be integrated into the assessment of the overall sustainability. Formulation of the management strategies requires evaluation and integration of research results from many different disciplines, and the focus of the interdisciplinary research should be on food systems and bioregions rather than on the level of farms or farming systems.The present article is a review on today‘s discussion and research dealing withconventional, organic and local farming for food production. The future prospects of organic production to respond to the challenges of advancing global food security and to contribute to overall sustainable development are discussed. It seems that as a developing production mode organic agriculture has a role to play in the green global network of local food systems.

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47-53 K. Kucińska, I. Pelc and J. Golba
Review of prospects of organic agriculture development in Poland determinate by consumer demands
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Review of prospects of organic agriculture development in Poland determinate by consumer demands

K. Kucińska, I. Pelc and J. Golba

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology,Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland

Abstract:

Organic farming is developing dynamically in the European Union. In Poland its growth is much slower: the area of organic farms is still just a little above 1% of all utilised agricultural area. Research shows that the main obstacles to the dynamic development of organic farming are shortage of properly educated consumers and lack of an efficient distribution system of organic products in Poland and abroad. Regulations established before and after joining the European Union, in spite of some shortcomings, are not a barrier for the development of organic farming in Poland.

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