Grain yield and quality of winter wheat varieties in organic agriculture
Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: email@example.com
During the period 2004–2006, grain yield and quality characteristics of ten winter wheat (Triticum aestive L.) varieties from the very good, good and satisfactory baking quality groups were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture under the conditions of organic agriculture. Results showed a marked influence of climatically different years on the winter wheat varieties’ grain yield and quality characteristics (protein and gluten content, gluten quality by gluten index, sedimentation index according to Zeleny). When the growing conditions were rather dry and warmer (2006), compared with the long-term mean, grain yield was the poorest but grain quality was the best and grain of most of the winter wheat varieties met the requirements set for bread-making. The varieties ‘Lars’ and ‘Zentos’ combined high yield with stability, their sum of integral assessment of grain yield was respectively (11+) and (10+). From quality parameters in varieties a higher variability was noted for sedimentation (26.6–29.7%), but similar variation in separate years showed that this quality parameter was most stable over years. In overall high-quality varieties from the very good / good baking quality groups, an ecological way of growing may give good baking utilization possibilities but this strongly depends on environmental conditions. Varieties ‘Širvinta 1’ and ‘Ada’ were more stable concerning wet gluten content and sedimentation, ‘Zentos’ and ‘Alma’ – concerning gluten index. Glu-1 score corresponded significantly and positively with higher sedimentation, hectolitre weight and gluten index.