Tag Archives: organic farming

225–238 A. Łachacz, J. Tyburski and K. Romaneckas
The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops
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The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops

A. Łachacz¹, J. Tyburski² and K. Romaneckas³*

¹Department of Soil Science and Land Reclamation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 727 Olsztyn, Poland
²Department of Agroecosystems, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 719 Olsztyn, Poland
³Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Sciences, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų 11, Akademija, LT53 361 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Correspondence: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt

Abstract:

Soils with high content of particles φ ≤ 0.02 mm usually have nonfavourable physical and mechanical properties. In order to determine the impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soils in organic farming systems, in the years of 2007–2009 an on-farm scale field experiment was carried out in Budziszewo, Pomeranian province in Poland. The farm was organically managed for 20 years and was characterized by proper management (an appropriate crop rotation and a high stand of dairy cows). Nevertheless, in spring there were problems with soil drying, which used to delay sowing of spring cereals by ca 2 weeks, which in turn resulted in low yielding. Therefore, the following biological agents, i.e. beneficial microorganisms, were applied in 3 consecutive years 3 times each year. Produced on-farm (biodynamic horn preparation) and the others produced by industry under the trademark of: effective microorganism (EM), Humobak and UGmax. In 2007 silage maize was grown, in 2008 – winter spelt wheat and in 2009 – spring common wheat. The soil samples to study soil properties were collected from 5–15 cm soil layer during the vegetation period. The following soil properties were analysed: granulometric composition, bulk density of dry soil, total porosity, soil humidity and air content during sampling, organic matter content, soil pH, content of macroelements (P, K, Mg), soil aggregation based on dry and wet sieving. Moreover in 2009 additional soil samples were taken from an adjusting neighboring field of the conventional farm with the aim of comparing soil physical properties developed both under organic and conventional management.
The authors concluded that the application of above mentioned biological agents did not affect significantly soil properties. The applied agents did not affect crop productivity, with the exception of Humobak which decreased yield of silage maize and spring common wheat in the range of 41, and 26% respectively. A proper organic management as opposed to application of biological agents has positive effect on soil physical properties.

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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801-810 P. Konvalina, Z. Stehno, J. Moudry
The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems
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The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems

P. Konvalina¹, Z. Stehno², J. Moudry¹

¹University of South Bohemia in ýeské BudČjovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant
Production and Agroecology, Department of Organic Farming, ýeské BudČjovice, Czech
Republic, konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²Crop Research Institute Prague, Czech Republic, stehno@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, wheat is the most important crop for organic farming systems. However, the varieties bred and tested in the conditions of organic farming systems are still missing, resulting in a very low level of yield in the Czech Republic (less than 50% of level of conventional yield in the same conditions). One reason is that the ideotype of the organically bred variety is different from that of the conventional. The varieties suitable for an organic farming system differ in many respects from those adopted in conventional farming. The first difference is obvious from the conventional tests of the varieties’ value for use, taking only direct indicators influencing the main parameter (yield) into account. Generally speaking, the features to be tested can be divided into 4 groups: the morphological, biological, economic and quality parameters. The conventional varieties are bred in conditions characterised by an abundance of soluble nutrients, and therefore, their root systems are not adapted to an insufficiency or weaker bonding of nutrients. The competitiveness with weeds has also been ignored. Any conventional variety which has not had to confront strong weeds during the breeding process cannot be assumed to be competitive enough in the conditions of an organic agro-ecosystem. Resistance to diseases and pests can be similarly characterised. Varieties are protected by pesticides throughout the conventional breeding process. Because of the seasonal fluctuations in weather, we need a plastic and flexible variety. They also differ in their qualitative parameters.

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198-203 B. Bankina and Z. Gaile
Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties
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Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties

B. Bankina¹ and Z. Gaile²

¹Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Biruta.Bankina@llu.lv
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Zinta.Gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Resistance against diseases is one of the key factors for plant varieties used in organic farming systems. Official variety trials in a certified organic field were inspected during 2004–2008 in the Research and Study farm “Vecauce”of LLU.Net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres) and mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) were the most significant diseases in spring barley. Rust (caused by Puccinia hordei (syn. P. anomala) was observed very seldom and leaf scald (caused by Rhynchosporium secalis) was noted only in 2008 for a new breeding line, G 131.The incidence of net blotch fluctuated from 0–100% depending on year and variety, butthe incidence of mildew was 3–100%. The incidence of barley rust did not exceed 29% (severity only 0.7%).The obtained data gave general information about the spectrum of diseases, but they areinconsistent and are seriously influenced by meteorological conditions: artificial inoculation is necessary for better variety selection, especially for organic farming.

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257-262 S. Hokazono, K. Hayashi and M. Sato
Potentialities of organic and sustainable rice production in Japan from a life cycle perspective
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Potentialities of organic and sustainable rice production in Japan from a life cycle perspective

S. Hokazono, K. Hayashi and M. Sato

National Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization,3-1-1 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8666, Japan; e-mail: hokazo@affrc.go.jp

Abstract:

Many cultivation practices have been improved in order to decrease environmental burdens of paddy rice production in Japan. Therefore, the importance of life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impacts of whole production systems particularly that of rice production has increased. However, the applications of LCA to rice production are still limited, although rice is the staple food in Asian countries. In this study, we apply LCA to organic and sustainable (environmentally-friendly) rice production and compare the two systems by using global warming and eutrophication potentials as indicators. Although both of these production systems generally outperform conventional farming, our results indicate that the environmental superiority of organic and sustainable farming depends on the functional unit. Our results imply that organic and sustainable farming have the potential to reduce environmental burdens depending on the functions of farming systems used for the analysis.

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374-380 A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė
The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing
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The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing

A. Leistrumaitė, Ž. Liatukas and K. Razbadauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Investigation on 12 spring barley and 7 oat genotypes under organic growing system during 2007–2008 revealed that mean yield of oats was 3.3 t ha-1, whereas barley yielded on average 2.3 t ha-1. Also, oats were found to be more resistant to leaf diseases. Oats were severely infected by leaf rust in 2007, but the disease did not correlate (r = –0.17) with yield. The majority of barley genotypes were infected with powdery mildew in both years and with leaf spotting diseases in 2007. Leaf spotting diseases negatively influenced (r = –0.53*) yield. Oats possessing higher vegetative growth rate, higher plant height, large and prostrate leaves, and larger stems were superior to barley by canopy traits during the growing season.

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381-386 Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė
Selection of winter wheat for organic growing
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Selection of winter wheat for organic growing

Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The study was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. Sixteen registered winter wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines were tested. Correlation analysis of traits of winter wheat genotypes grown under conventional and organic systems showed stronger correlations between the traits that had been found to be environmentally more stable. Overwintering, plant height, heading, maturity, lodging and hectolitre weight strongly correlated (r = 0.74**–0.98**) between the growing systems in both years. Soil coverage, which is a very important trait for organic system showed weak or medium correlations (r = 0.43*–0.64**) between the systems tested. Yield and 1000 grain weight mostly correlated with the traits of plant vegetative development, whereas hectolitre weight showed random correlations with the other traits. The yield was found to positively correlate with soil coverage at development stages BBCH41-42, 60-65 and number of productive tillers (r = 0.31*–0.54*).

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400-405 H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür
The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements
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The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements

H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür

Department of Plant Sciences , Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,13 Teaduse St.,75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract Different sowing rates, row spacing, optimal and reasonable mixtures of herbicides were investigated for the seed production of the Estonian fodder galega Gale (Galega orientalis Lam.). The control of dicotyledonous weeds with herbicides is well justified in the year of sowing because the control remains insufficient in the years of seed production. However, the control of weeds in the years of seed production diminishes the expenditures for seed gathering, drying and cleaning. The control of couch grass is necessary to avoid ergot sclerotia in seed production and gives good results in the years of seed harvesting. The average seed yield of fodder galega was 259 kg ha-1 Desicant Basta 150 SL (glyfosinate-ammonium 158 g l-1) with rate of 1.0 l ha-1 was used before seed harvesting in order to dry the green parts of plants, to favour uniform ripening and to diminish the losses in seed harvesting, which gave an extra yield of 35%. Due to a higher competative ability of weeds, it is expedient to use a bigger sowing rate in the ecological farming, i.e. 10 kg ha-1.

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419-424 J. Moudrý, jr, P. Konvalina, J. Moudrý, L. Friebel and J. Friebelová
Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects
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Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects

J. Moudrý, jr¹, P. Konvalina¹, J. Moudrý¹, L. Friebel² and J. Friebelová²

¹University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Agriculure,Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05
²University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Economy, Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05

Abstract:

Farming on grasslands is an important part of organic faming. There is a perceptible trend of increasing acreages of grasslands in organic farming in the Czech republic too. Adjustment of subventions has an inconsiderable influence on this trend. Subventions should be balanced in a sufficient measure for supporting of organic farming in all directions, nevertheless in current situation the increasing of acreage of grasslands is too strong and share of grasslands in organic farming is too high. It provokes a degradation of production function of organic farming and insufficient utilization of arable land. This article is focused on the analysis of farming of selective file of farms with accent on farming on grasslands and use of the agroenvironmental programmes.

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485-491 A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė
The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield
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The influence of organic mulches on soil properties and crop yield

A. Sinkevičienė, D. Jodaugienė, R. Pupalienė and M. Urbonienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,Studentų 11 Akademija, LT-53356 Kaunas distr. Lithuania;e-mail: ausrasinkevicienelzuu@gmail.com

Abstract:

The application of organic mulches as a soil cover is effective in improving the quality of soil and increasing crop yield, especially in organic farming. The field experiment was carried out in the Pomological Garden of Lithuanian University of Agriculture in 2005–2008. The soil type – Calc(ar)i- Endohypogleyic Luvisol. Treatments: 1) without mulching; 2) chopped wheat straw; 3) peat; 4) sawdust; 5) grass.The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of different mulches on soilproperties and crop yield.All examined organic mulches significantly decreased soil temperature. Mulched plotsalso had higher soil moisture content throughout the experimental period. The highest soil moisture content was in plots mulched with peat or sawdust. The tendency of a higher amount of available phosphorus in the soil in mulched plots in 2005–2006 was established. The positive effect of grass mulch on available potassium in the soil was estimated.Mulching decreased weed density. During all years of the experiment significantly highercrop yields were obtained in grass-mulched plots. Peat mulch significantly decreased weed number although it has a significant negative effect on crop yield.

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