Tag Archives: peas

xxx B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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1467–1474 L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava and I. Gedrovica
Physical and Chemical Properties of Extruded Pea Product
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Physical and Chemical Properties of Extruded Pea Product

L. Strauta*, S. Muižniece-Brasava and I. Gedrovica

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food technology, St. Liela 2, LV-3002 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: strauta.liene@gmail.com

Abstract:

 Peas (Pisum sativum L.) are a good source of protein, dietary fibre, and certain minerals, thus making them valuable nutrients in human diet. Unfortunately, peas are not commonly used in human diet due to their long cooking time. New products should be manufactured to increase the presence of peas in human diet. In order to make the grey peas easier for people to consume, extrusion cooking was used. Due to varying recipes, different products were obtained. Peas of the variety ‘Bruno’ with and without the addition of wheat and oat flour and egg powder were used in the experiments. Protein, fat and starch content of these products was analysed chemically but their pH, size, hardness, and volume mass was measured using physical methods. The average pH for all the samples was 7.3 ± 0.5, size differences ranged from 5.4 ± 0.4 mm to 10.3 ± 0.5 mm in length and 6.4 ± 0.2 to 11.7 ± 0.8 mm in width. More fat was found in the sample with onion flavour – up to 9.5 ± 0.5 g 100 g-1 – but the least amount of fat was found in the sample without any seasoning – 0.6 ± 0.05 g 100 g-1 on average. The average starch content was 23 ± 2 g 100 g-1, while the highest protein content was discovered in the sample where grains and egg powder had not been added – 26.9 ± 0.2 g 100 g-1, and the lowest – 18.6 ± 0.5g 100 g-1 – in the sample with the largest grain proportion. The samples with the highest volume mass were the ones with added egg powder – 43 ± 2 N and 387 ± 2 g L-1. The obtained results show that the largest and crispiest sample was acquired using only pea flour, and pea and wheat flour mixed in the proportion 1:1.

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239-244 I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite
Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands
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Weed suppression ability of spring cereal crops and peas in pure and mixed stands

I. Deveikyte, Z. Kadziuliene and L. Sarunaite

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr.,LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, zkadziul@lzi.lt, lina@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Weeds were investigated in the stands of field pea (Pisum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) grown as pure and as mixtures at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Results revealed that annuals dominated in the weed flora composition (7–19 species) while perennials were more recessive (2–11 weed species). The total weed number was higher by 1.3–1.6 fold in the peas stand compared to the weed number in peas-cereals stands. In barley, wheat, oat and triticale stands the number of weeds was significantly lower than that for peas. Cereals and their mixtures with peas had the best suppressing ability compared to peas investigated. The dry mass of weeds in the peas stand was essentially higher than in the other stands of crops. The effect of pea mixtures with cereals crops on weed mass was similar as compared to that of pure cereals crops.

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91–98 K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis
Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas
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Effect of stubble breaking and ploughing at different depths on cultivation of peas

K. Pranaitis and S. Marcinkonis

Voke branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,
LT-02232 Vilnius; e-mail: kestas.pranaitis@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials were conducted over the period 1998–2001 at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture on a sandy loam Haplic Luvisol (LVh). Pea’s precrop was winter rye. Crop residues were returned to the soil; straw was chopped at harvest. The aim of the investigation was to determine the effect of stubble breaking, ploughing at different depths on the weediness of cultivated crop, as well as on the crop yield.
Most couch-grass (Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski) infested were unbroken-stubble and shallow-ploughed plots. It caused a yield reduction by 11–20%. The lowest numbers of weeds were counted and the highest pea’s yield was obtained on broken stubble, 0.22–0.25 m depth ploughed.

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