Tag Archives: pellets

923-935 L. Zihare, R. Soloha & D. Blumberga
The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders
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The potential use of invasive plant species as solid biofuel by using binders

L. Zihare,* R. Soloha & D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Āzenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence to the author: lauma.zihare@rtu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the current research is to find sustainable pellet resources that are not made from forestry, agricultural materials, or food products. Evaluation has been carried out by experimentally determining the biofuel parameters of two invasive plant species. In comparison to the process of finding a new application, their use in the production of solid biofuel pellets would not require additional investment for the construction of a new pellet production plant. The article’s hypothesis suggests that biofuel parameters for invasive plant species are sufficient for the production of solid biofuel and that their properties can be improved by binders that are available worldwide in the form of residues.
The experiment was carried out for two invasive plant species that are widespread in Latvia – Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden and Solidago canadensis L. The binders used include potato peel waste and spent coffee grounds. All of the tests have been carried out according to ISO standards on biofuel testing. Results show that H sosnowskyi is more suitable for solid biofuel than S canadensis as it has a higher calorific value and an ash content that is two times lower – 3 wt%. Coffee grounds are a suitable binder because they increase calorific value.
The type and amount of binders partly confirms the hypothesis, since both binders reduced the amount of ash in pellets. Further research is needed to carry out pellet durability tests. It is also necessary to carry out an economic analysis in order to evaluate how beneficial it may be to use H sosnowskyi as a solid fuel in existing pellet production plants, thereby avoiding large initial investments and not encouraging the cultivation of invasive plant species.

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474-482 M. Križan, K. Krištof, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová
Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes
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Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes

M. Križan, K. Krištof*, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was the evaluation and comparison of energy potential of briquettes and pellets produced from the maize straw and woody biomass based on various diameters of pellets. By experimental measurements a calorific value and ash content was observed. Calorific value was measured by laboratory calorimeter IKA C 6000 (IKA® Works, Inc., USA) and laboratory combustion chamber Lindberg/Blue M (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., USA). Individual calorific values and ash content was observed and subsequently confronted to obtain differences with replication. The analysis showed that calorific value of pellets with diameter 6 mm ranged from 16.99 MJ kg-1 to 17.80 MJ kg-1. Calorific value of pellets with 8 mm diameter ranged from 16.63 MJ kg-1 to 17.20 MJ kg-1. However, compared calorific value of briquettes ranged from 14.99 MJ kg-1 to 15.66 MJ kg-1. Further analysis showed that ash content of samples varied as well and it’s even affected by diameter of pellets. While ash content of pellets with diameter 6 mm was observed as 4.9% of total volume in case of pellets with 8 mm it was observed at value 5.5%. Briquettes produced from maize straw have ash content at value 5.4%. In contrary, ash content of woody biomass was significantly higher, 11% of volume, specifically. At the basis of observed parameters it can be concluded that maize straw densified in form of briquettes and pellets have a great energy potential which is comparable and competitive with currently used materials for production of briquettes and pellets.

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1846–1855 S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova, V. Krepl and A. Muntean
Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development
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Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development

S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova*, V. Krepl and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

An increasing awareness of the negative environmental cost associated with the combustion of fossil fuels and concerns over the geopolitical instability of the main oil producing regions is driving the development of renewable energy sources and biofuels. Use of solid biofuels made of different types of biomass became perspective alternative to conventional fuels in many countries. Such positive indicators as low cost of the final product that meets the quality of standards, not capital intensive production, possibility of producing briquettes/pellets from almost any agricultural waste or combination of raw materials are undoubted advantages of biomass based fuels. The main challenges for Tajikistan’s energy sector, which is depended on energy imports, are: to increase energy supply through better exploitation of hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and primary biofuels. Within the agricultural sector of Tajikistan, which is highly agrarian country, cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output. According to the Ministry of Agriculture of Tajikistan 199,400 hectares of lands have been allocated to cotton cultivation in the year of 2014. Plenty of unused cotton residual biomass could be effectively utilized for winter heating in rural areas. The main focus of the research was to investigate and assess physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pellets and briquettes produced form cotton waste biomass.

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1550–1558 L. Chladek, V. Plachy, P. Vaculik and P. Brany
Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening
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Evaluation of nutritional and physical values of pellets based on pea and lupine with added yeast in chickens fattening

L. Chladek¹*, V. Plachy², P. Vaculik¹ and P. Brany¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague - Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: chladekl@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article is focused on the development of the new type of broiler chicken feed, based on pea (Pisum sativum L.) and blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L), enriched with used dried brewer´s yeast. This composition eliminates use of soybean meal (PES) that was yet a traditional component in chicken feed. The main reason for its elimination was the using of genetically modified varieties of soybean and its relatively high price around 0.5 €uro kg-1 in Czech Republic. For milling of pea or blue lupine was used vertical (hammer) mill type Taurus, supplied by company TAURUS, for drying of used brewer´s yeast had been used drier Memmert UFE 800, final dry matter of the yeast was 88%. For pellets production were used two devices, press type JGE 120-6110 and Testmer. For the determination of physical properties of manufactured pellets (the weight of 1,000 pieces, bulk density, abrasiveness and pellet durability index PDI) were used following laboratory devices, Pellet Tester Holmen NHP and Testmer 200. Experimental activities had shown that the best results were reached using pellets manufactured on base blue lupine enriched by dried brewer´s yeast (6%).

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259–268 D. Streikus, A. Jasinskas, M. Arak, E. Jotautienė1, R. Mieldažys, S. Čekanauskas and Z. Jankauskienė
Investigations of fibre plants preparation and utilization of solid biofuels
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Investigations of fibre plants preparation and utilization of solid biofuels

D. Streikus¹, A. Jasinskas¹*, M. Arak², E. Jotautienė1, R. Mieldažys¹, S. Čekanauskas³ and Z. Jankauskienė⁴

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Institute of
Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Kaunas-Akademija, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361
Kaunas r., Lithuania
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Experimental Station, Kaunas-Akademija,
LT-53361 Kaunas r., Lithuania
⁴Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Upyte Experimental Station,
Linininku str. 3, Upyte, LT-38294 Panevezys r., Lithuania
*Correspondence: algirdas.jasinskas@asu.lt

Abstract:

Presented research results of technological-technical means and operations for solid biofuel preparation: chopping, milling, pelleting and burning of fibre plants – 3 sorts of fibre hemp (Beniko, Bialobrzeskie and Epsilon 68) and fibre nettle (sown in 60 x 60 cm). These fibre plants were grown in the experimental fields of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Upytė Experimental Station, and in Aleksandras Stulginskis University were investigated the technical means of these plants preparation and usage for energy purposes. It was used the standard methodology for solid biofuel preparation of fibre plants, and was investigated the technique for plant chopping, milling and pelleting. There were determined fibre plant mill fractional composition while usage the hummer miller prepared mill. There were determined the fibre plant pellet quality indicators – moisture content and bulk density. The fibre plant pellet moisture content ranged from 6.4% to 8.8%, and pellet density reached 1,082.7–1,186.2 kg m-3 DM (dry matter). Pellet elemental composition, ash content and calorific value were determined at the Lithuanian Energy Institute. The ash content after the burning of fibre plant pellet was not high and varied from 3.6 to 5.9%. Determined net calorific value of fibre hemp and fibre nettle dry mass was relatively high 17.2–17.5 MJ kg-1, it was close to calorific value of some wood species.

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134–142 K. Makovskis,, D. Lazdina, A. Arsanica and V. Solodovniks
Mechanical durability and water absorption of pellets made from different tree species – a case study
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Mechanical durability and water absorption of pellets made from different tree species – a case study

K. Makovskis¹,*, D. Lazdina¹, A. Arsanica² and V. Solodovniks²

¹Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, 111 Riga street, LV–2169 Salaspils,
Latvia
²LTD NewFuels, 169a Atbrivosanas aleja, LV – 4604 Rezekne, Latvia
*Correspondence: kristaps.makovskis@silava.lv

Abstract:

Seven different tree species (coniferous and broad leaved) were selected for small scale pelletizing tests: birch (Betula sp.), aspen (Populus tremula L.), grey alder (Alnus incana L.), poplar (Populus sp.), European larch (Larix decidua Miil.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Tree species were mixed in different combinations and proportions. Wood mixture from one tree specie (several tree species were tested as base material during study) was used as base material with volume share in the mix at least 70% and mixtures from other tree species were used as additives. In total 49 different tree mixes were tested in pellet production where mechanical durability and water absorption was later measured for each sample. Mechanical durability where grey alder was mixed with pine was 98.8% (fulfils ENplus quality class). Poplar also showed high results and in some mixes meet the criteria for mechanical durability with best result 99% in mixes with European larch and lodgepole pine (proportions 80:10:10). From 9 different poplar mixes 7 of them showed mechanical durability higher than 97.5%. In tests where no additives was added (100% poplar), poplar pellets mechanical durability was 98.8%. Other mixes with birch, aspen and grey alder when they were taken as base material for pellet production (base material wood volume share in the mixture at least 70%, where remaining 30% consists of other tree specie mixtures) didn’t meet the mechanical durability limit for ENplus quality classes and it was lower than 97.5%. Also in samples where birch and grey alder were used without adding other tree species durability was under 97.5%. European larch was the only one from coniferous trees was tested as base material and the best results in mechanical durability showed in mixes with lodgepole pine (proportion 70:30). From 9 different European larch mixes 7 of them showed mechanical durability higher than 97.5%, which is suitable for ENplus certification. Water absorption in pellets with different tree species  composition does not change significantly and ranges from 0.70 to 0.73 ml g-1 when in commercially available litter material it is 0.75–0.8 ml g-1. Water absorption tests leads to a conclusion that if pellets mechanical durability is not sufficient to sell it as combustion material in could be sold as litter material for animals.

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